My Apocalyptic Chronicles


Apocalyptic Chronicles-

Welcome my friends. Journey with us into a world of enigmatic, ancient structures, scientific misconduct, out-of-place geometry, astronomical alignments, geological wonders, unknown aerial/geophysical phenomena, deformed skeletons, lost civilizations, ritual murder, bloodletting, cannibalism, missing persons, and scientific validation of ancient tradition and prophecy. It all swirls through my skull day-and-night, fueled by my zeal to understand this puzzle of bones, stones, demonic iconography, and institutional corruption. Geology, cultural anthropology, and archaeology, all toggled simultaneously in a brutal toil of quantitative reasoning and interdisciplinary research that took me to the brink of madness and back again.

Here, we explore the crossroads of ancient and modern, the elite and the public, heaven and earth, we find illumination by deciphering the modern narrative and True, human history. Those who do not understand history are doomed to repeat it, as we now are. The devastation of the natural world, unhinged tyranny, and public, demonic worship, these are the crimes of our ancestors. Today, our civilization ravages all species worldwide, secret society oligarchs reign, enslaving humanity into materialism, depravity, and spiritual corruption through predictive programing, media mind control. We are returning to the “Days of Noah.”

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By Mark A. Carpenter M.A. B.S.


  New discoveries emerge everyday. Space-age technology is facilitating a deluge of fresh insight. As a result of this flood of information, our understanding is in a constant state of  flux. In July of 1996, a skull was stumbled onto by a couple friends floating down the Columbia River in Kennewick, Washington. Then in 2008, a gigantic tooth was unearthed deep within Russia’s Siberian caves. Hidden under a shadow of scientific misconduct, these ancient bones whisper disturbing secrets and theirs are cover-ups of Biblical proportions.

Kennewick Man   

The friend’s discovery of the skull sparked a nine-year-long firestorm of legal battles, scientific corruption, and culminated in a complete distortion of one of the most ancient skeletons ever discovered in North America. Carbon tests date Kennewick Man, whom the Native American tribes refer to as “The Ancient One,” to around 9,000 BCE. This makes him one of the most important discoveries in the history North American archaeology. Controversies erupted over Kennewick Man, the first was between scientists in heated debates about his origins and ethnicity. The second revolved around the Umatilla Tribe’s legal demands for the remains to be repatriated back to his ancestral burial grounds.

Here is a link to my interview on Leak Project.

Here is a link to my interview with George Noory on Coast to Coast AM.

The So-Called Denisovan Hominids

In the 1970s, Russian paleontologist Nikolai Ovodov was the first scientist to discover the cave in Southern Siberia where the Atlai Mountains are the natural border between Russia and Kazakhstan. Despite being analyzed by scientists so many decades ago, it was not until 2008 when Russian scientist Michael Shunkov emerged from the cave with a huge find. His team had found a finger bone belonging to a hominid female that lived anywhere from fifty-to-seventy-thousand years ago. DNA analysis revealed she was neither Homo sapien nor Neanderthal, but an entirely different species of human. Swarms of European and Russian scientists have since brought to light even more incredible remains, dating to 160,000 BCE, and even more astonishingly, some of the teeth are literally gigantic, around twice the height, diameter, and volume of an average Homo sapien molar.

The Distorted Skull of The Ancient One

  Three-hundred bones of Kennewick Man were recovered, making him relatively complete for such an ancient skeleton. Being the controversy it was, there was intense mainstream media pursuit of photos and comments from the Smithsonian. The journalists with the inside track (NPR, CBS, and Smithsonian Magazine) published stories containing official photographs of the entire collection of bones.

In all mass media publications, the photographs clearly show that The Ancient One’s cranium is radically deformed and elongated. Without going too deep into the worldwide phenomenon of prehistoric cranial deformation, suffice it to say that very ancient and very deformed skulls have been discovered all over the planet. The establishment insists, although with limited bordering on feeble evidence, that these cultures universally and independently conjured up the practice of “infant head binding,” to modify the shape of the cranium as a symbol of status. The small rebel faction argues convincingly that the deformities are anatomical beyond the capabilities of body modification, like in the case of the ancient, infant mummy known as the Detmold Child.

The Replica Cover-Up Exposed  

Here is another talk radio interview on the topic.

The degree of deformation of skull is up there with some of the most wildly deformed skulls ever discovered, like those of the ancient Paracas Culture of Peru. Here can be found conical shaped skulls, missing sagittal sutures (biological joints where the skulls fuses itself from birth), in some cases far more cranial volume, none of which can be accounted for via any form of body modification, and instead obviously points to these as genetic traits which many researchers, alternative and even mainstream have pointed out.

But, ever since the initial wave of press with their direct access, only images of the replicas have been presented. The entire structure of the replica skull has been altered, so that it looks like a typical Homo sapien cranium. In the observable reality that are the mainstream images of the complete skeleton, it is plain to see, that the volume and length of the skull is tremendously disproportionate and fascinatingly bizarre, not only that, but the eye sockets are significantly greater in diameter than that of a Homo sapien.

The Tooth of a Giant Downplayed

In 2015, in the peer reviewed, scientific journal PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America) an article was published entitled “Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences from two Denisovan individuals.” A month later, designed for more public consumption, Danny Lewis of the Smithsonian published his article entitled “DNA from a Huge Tooth Confirms a New Ancient Cousin.” While they do not come out and say it directly, these reports and the data within, prove definitively, that species of gigantic hominids once walked the Earth. National Geographic covered the discovery and their headline read: “DNA Reveals Mysterious Human Cousin With Huge Teeth.” The headline inanely suggests that the teeth of the hominid were somehow disproportionately large compared to its own size … instead of simply acknowledging that the hominid itself was huge.  

Teeth and mandibles are the most common remains found in all ancient primate specimens, as such, the relationship between teeth, mandibles, craniums, and inferences to overall skeletal size have been the subject of intense anthropological scrutiny for over a century. Oceans of ink have been spilled in countless, peer-reviewed, scholarly reports about the proportional relationship between tooth size, mandible size, and corresponding cranial features. And while these reports are root-canal-procedure painful to read, and filled with anatomical/odonatological jargon, the relationship is not so complex. In essence, a large tooth means a large jawbone, and a large jawbone means a large skull, it is that simple.

An Unnoticed Mainstream Confession

This Smithsonian article “DNA from a Huge Tooth Confirms a New Ancient Cousin,” is a must read as the discoveries and admissions contained in it are pointing to a profound intersection of science and mythology. “The world at that time must have been far more complex than previously thought,” these are the words of the study author Susanna Sawyer, explaining to Michael Greshko, writer for National Geographic. ‘“Who knows what other hominids lived and what effects they had on us?”’ Until recently, scientists relied on what genetic information they could glean from a single Denisovan tooth and finger bone discovered in 2008. But after a second tooth was recently uncovered and analyzed, everything they knew about our ancient cousins changed.”

The scientists go on to admit that giants, dwarves, and Homo sapiens all coexisted for tens-of-thousands of years at least … they seem sheepishly shocked and stunned by cognitive dissonance, failing to vindicate the “mythology.”

“The Denisovans were more closely related to Neanderthals, having diverged from Homo sapiens about 500,000 years ago. Yet genetic scans suggest that Denisovans interbred with both Neanderthals and Homo sapiens, as well as possibly a fourth unknown species, Sarah Kaplan writes for The Washington Post. That suggests that the early human world ‘“was a lot like Middle-Earth,”’ as molecular anthropologist Todd Disotell, who was not involved in the new study, tells Carl Zimmer for The New York Times.

‘“There you’ve got elves and dwarves and hobbits and orcs (orcs were man-eating giants),”’ Disotell says. When our species was still fairly young, ‘“we had a ton of hominins that are closely related to us.”’

At this point in the article, one can feel the familiar undertow of institutional slithering- “Paleontologists still don’t know exactly what the Denisovans looked like, but they did have teeth so big that at first they were mistaken for cave bear teeth, Kaplan writes.” It is true, that with the that we know of, it cannot be determined exactly what they looked like; however, they are deliberately evading the one, glaring fact, about their appearance: that they were giants. Why be coy and say “the teeth were so big we thought they were bear’s teeth at first?” Also, the interbreeding between species, was not a romantic affair, but cases of abduction. Neanderthals, like those of Spain and Portugal, dwelled in caves and practiced cannibalism of both Neanderthal and Homo sapien, this on top of incredible feats of hunting. These finds when combined, vindicate thousands of years of ancient tradition worldwide.

Returning once more to the article “Now, scientists are combing through the region to track down any more Denisovan fossils, as well as any hints of the unknown fourth species that our ancient cousins might have interbred with. ‘“It feels a bit surreal,”’ Sawyer said. ‘“Sometimes when I’m sitting in the clean room, I stop to think about how crazy it is that I am holding one of the only remains known to date from a new and mysterious hominid group.”’

The Ancient One Had Six Fingers But Not a Word

Returning to Kennewick Man, the Smithsonian photographs provided to the journalists reveal more than just the discrepancy between replica skull dimensions and the original. Under careful inspection, five finger bones are clearly identifiable, but they are trigger through pinky digits, and despite having five fingers, the thumb is missing; therefore, The Ancient One not only had an elongated skull, he had six fingers too. It is simply not possible, no matter how incompetent they may be, that Smithsonian scientists did not recognize this fact.

Prehistoric Polydactyly

A 2016, anthropologist Patricia Crown of the University of New Mexico conducted studies on the remains of the ruling elites of Prehistoric Chaco Canyon in New Mexico. Just for a bit of backstory for any who may be unfamiliar, Chaco Canyon is a mysterious and massive cluster of ancient ruins far from any natural resources. These ruins are a precise arrangement of cosmogram (astro-theological temple shrines) that feature sunken ceremonial chambers called kivas. Crown’s work, published in 2016 in the journal American Antiquity, revealed that the ruling elites had six fingers and six toes, and that this feature was revered as a sign of their semi-divine lineage.

Before departing the mysterious Chaco Canyon and all its secrets, it must be mentioned as yet another disturbing discovery, that Dr. Christy Turner of Arizona State University, proved ritual cannibalism on a mass scale definitively in his study Man Corn: Cannibalism and Violence in the American Southwest. Christy is primarily focused on human taxonomy of the victims, whereas Crown the polydactyly of the ruling elite, but when you combine their work together, it becomes clear that these six-fingered sorcerers were the perpetrators of a vast cannibalistic cult.

A Rabbit Hole Rollercoaster Abyss

  Anatomical anomalies, huge physical stature, deformed skulls, sacred subterranean spaces, abduction, black magic/sorcery via ritual murder, cannibalism, polydactyly, these elements collide time and time again in the haunting mosaics of Native American, Mesoamerican, and Mesopotamian antiquity. Accounts often dismissed as folklore or myth, now come crashing into reality by way of scientific discoveries. In light of the hoaxes perpetrated by the Smithsonian regarding the distortion of Kennewick Man’s skull and omission of polydactyly, their measurements of his size are fatally compromised.

Nephilim: Nothing New Under the Sun

These same elements not only appear in Native American and Mesoamerican Traditions, but also within the Biblical narrative. The Nephilim were described as non-human human-hybrids, purveyors of demonic, blood religion, gigantic in stature, lawless, cannibalistic, polydactyls, megalithic builders, and who were worshiped by the Homo sapiens as demigods. They were brought to near extinction by the famous deluge of Noah, but, the narrative also states that Nephilim did survive the flood and that their further hybridized descendants lived on.

Mainstream science does indeed acknowledge a mass-extinction event, the Younger-Dryas which was probably an impact event, that did initiate global flooding, and happened around 13,000 BCE. In all the narratives, mainstream science, Biblical/Mesopotamian, Native American, Mesoamerican, there is recognition of an antediluvian, inter-species conflict between Homo sapiens and the invasive, hominid-hybrid species, who were decimated to the brink of extinction by Homo sapien violent revolt and environmental cataclysm. As the axiom goes, when legend becomes fact … print the legend.


Gill, George (2014), “Cranial features that reflect population affinities”, in Douglas W. Owsley; Richard L. Jantz (eds.), Kennewick Man, The Scientific Investigation of an Ancient American Skeleton, Texas A&M University Press

Greshko, Michael. “DNA Reveals Mysterious Human Cousin With Huge Teeth: A new genetic analysis suggests that the recently discovered Denisovans lived in Eurasia for millennia.” National Geographic Nov. 16, 2015.

Lewis, Danny. “DNA from a Huge Tooth Confirms a New Ancient Cousin: The Denisovans may have co-existed and interbred with Neanderthals and Homo sapiens.” Nov. 17, 2015 Smithsonian Magazine.

Ovodov, N. D.; Crockford, S. J.; Kuzmin, Y. V.; Higham, T. F.; et al. (2011). “A 33,000-Year-Old Incipient Dog from the Altai Mountains of Siberia: Evidence of the Earliest Domestication Disrupted by the Last Glacial Maximum”.

Pennisi, E. (2013). “More Genomes from Denisova Cave Show Mixing of Early Human Groups”. Science. 340 (6134): 799.

Sidder, Aaron. “Extra Fingers and Toes Were Revered in Ancient Culture.” National Geographic 25 July 2016.

Turner, Christy G. Man Corn: Cannibalism and Violence in the Prehistoric American Southwest. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1999.


By Mark A. Carpenter


In the serene woodlands of the Northeastern United States, the Champlain Lake Valley meanders down the landscape, dividing the Adirondack and Green Mountain ranges. As the Champlain Basin ends, the Hudson River Valley begins, continuing to divide mountain ranges, terminating into the Atlantic Ocean. Modern headlines and history books may neglect to mention, but the forested mountains of this valley keep ancient and disturbing secrets. This area is littered with mysterious stone structures like cairns, balancing rocks, and megalithic chambers. Century-and-a-half-year-old news reports claim many large and abnormal skeletons were excavated here as well. Today, many hunters and travelers have vanished in these forests under very strange circumstances. Skeptics understandably squawk about glacial drifts, colonial constructions, and potential homicides or animal attacks; however, no comfortably conventional explanations standup under the pressure of objective scrutiny.

Mainstream History of the Valley

The conventional historic narrative holds that this valley was first inhabited seasonally by archaic Native Americans who hunted and migrated through the area. This is believed to have occurred in the archaic period around 10,000 – 7,000 BCE. At this time, Lake Champlain was part of a larger body of water, a temporary inlet to the Atlantic known today as the Champlain Sea. The ice sheets from the last glacial period had depressed the landscape, filling the St. Lawrence and Ottawa River Valleys, along with the Champlain and Hudson River Valleys, with sea water. As the glacial sheets retreated, the climate warmed, and the land gradually expanded (a process known as isostatic rebound), the waters of the Atlantic receded, leaving behind the series of lakes and river valleys. Then in the Woodland Period, beginning around 1000 BCE, Native Americans established villages who would then be the ancestors of the tribes encountered by contemporary European explorers. These tribes include the Abenaki-Sokoki, Pennacook Peoples, Mohawk, Mohican, Iroquois, and Algonquin. By the 17th century AD, a series of wars between English and French colonists allied these tribes on various sides of the conflicts, eventually leading to a rebellion by the Native Americans against the English who were victorious and disenfranchised/scattered them.

The Cairns

Carins are piles of stone made by human beings. Throughout the relative entirety of the Neolithic world, archaic people built stacks, or heaps, of stones for what seems to be a variety of reasons, ranging from trail markers, to battle memorials, to ceremonial sites. In 2020, a Welsch historical group unearthed a string of cairns dating back to 4500 BCE and are believed to have been erected by the mysterious archaic culture known as the Beaker People. The archaeologists of the project speculate that these cairns marked a burial ground; however, while they have found some Neolithic artifacts, it seems to date, they have not found any remains-believing they may simply be “long gone” due to their extreme age. Ancient British Isles Highland carries a tradition that before a battle, each warrior would place a stone on the pile then after the battle, those who survived would remove their stones, creating a shrine comprised of a stone for every soldier who perished.

Cairns Continued

Modern Hawaiians still today create cairns which they call an ahu. According the School of Hawaiian Knowledge, an ahu is “an alter, shrine, or cairn utilized for spiritual and ceremonial purposes in both the past and the present. Usually and of varied forms, these stone structures were constructed using Hawaiian dry stack stone masonry techniques. Ahu are often the focal points of ceremonies horning Hawaiian spirituality and ancestral spirits.” In Peru, near the Colca Canyon, reside ancient cairns known as Apachetas. Apacheta, translated from Quechua, means “the source where the flow begins,” and they exist at high points along the mountain trail. But, the true value of Apachetas was spiritual, and the stones were used to commune with, or appease, a higher power present in the mountains. The cairns were built up as more travelers passed the spot, stones were gathered along the trail, and then left on an Apacheta as an offering to the deities.

Apachetas were believed to be charged with supernatural powers, and transmitting a prayer through them was said to bring good fortune and otherworldly protection while on the path. Prayers were often directed toward Pachamama, the deity of the soil, sky, and underworld. Other belongings were often left behind as a sacrificial tribute, including tobacco, coca leaves, shells, sweet treats and even alcohol. Hundreds of Apachetas were erected, functioning as altars to guide people along the path and so that they too may win the blessings of the beings who inhabit these mountains.

The Balancing Stones

In North Salem New York, along Route 116, sits Balanced Rock. This is a 180 ton (163 metric ton) red-granite boulder that is strangely perched atop five smaller/conical stones. In Kinnelon New Jersey, within the interestingly named Pyramid Mountain Natural Historic Area, was a similar boulder atop a ridgeline balanced on three small stones. According to Bruce Scofield in an article in NEARA Journal 1983, this one known as Tripod Rock, was also aligned with the summer solstice, but one year after the survey was completed, the site was sold and the boulder was moved with heavy machinery. Many have observed that these boulders balanced atop supporting stones is a reoccurring, archaic culture phenomenon. Across the globe, from Korea to the British Isles, we find archaic structures called dolmens that reflect this very same design. Geologists, like local Steven Schimmrich, claim that the boulders are a natural occurrence they call a glacial erratic. There certainly are natural processes over millions of years a boulder can be transported by ice floats and find themselves precariously perched; however, it is unavoidable that the European/Eurasian dolmen and cairns were Neolithic if not Paleolithic culture. In other words, it is unlikely that glacial forces would deposit so many (another nearby is Bear Rock) perfectly balanced megaliths in close proximity to cairns and other Neolithic sites when we know for certain in other areas of the world, these dolmens and cairns were all archaic, man-made features.

The Closet Skeletons of New York

As you may have read here before, American news reports of the late nineteenth to early twentieth century, were filled with strange accounts of abnormal ancient skeletons being unearthed. Some of these news reports, place the findings directly within these valleys, these same valleys, that contain many, at the very least-possibly archaic rock structures. For example, in November 1901, in the Minneapolis Journal recounts that hunters from Pennsylvania were in Shohola’s Glen, New York when they discovered a cave. Within the cave, the report states, that the hunters found “the skeleton of a man of gigantic size. It was swathed in rawhide trappings that kept it in a sitting posture. Near the skeleton were several bowls of reddish clay but almost as hard as flint. A rude stone tablet was found near the skeleton side covered with rude pictures of birds and beasts, among them one of a monster half beast, half reptile. A number of implements were also found in the cave, among them a huge ax made of stone and stone spear heads of unusual size.” This report is not alone, there are many others like it, and while modern historians are quick to dismiss this as fanciful, yellow journalism, it is again hard to imagine that such fictions would be conjured that correspond to sites we now know indeed to be a mysterious, archaic culture.

Stranger Than Fiction

As if these mountain, forest valleys and their ancient secrets were not strange enough already, there is more strangeness that carries on today. In this very same region, over the past century, there is a very odd pattern of disappearances. A string of disappearances in the 1940s occurred in a focused area near Bennington Vermont, and the psychological impact of these events was so great, that even now people refer to this area as the “Bennington Triangle.” As recent as November of 2015, two totally unrelated, elderly men vanished without a trace. In a truly bizarre circumstance, a massive search and rescue operation was cut short in order to launch an entirely new, huge search only ten days apart. Both searches, which involved some fifty organizations and some three hundred searchers, came up utterly and completely empty. They found absolutely nothing of either of these elderly men, both of whom vanished within ten days and about forty miles of each other. There are many other such incidents that seem to happen at high frequency in this area, of course it is convenient to suspect that these are just unfortunate or ugly occurrences of people getting lost, or being attacked by an animal, or perhaps criminal mischief, but the pattern stretches back decades, even centuries, and it remains constant… people vanish in these woods.


The Champlain and Hudson Valleys, just North of the New York metropolis, ancient and disturbing mysteries are waiting for us to find them. Archaic cairns, rock structures, and balancing rocks are sprinkled throughout the highlands, the only hard clues we have to these old, forgotten secrets of the forests and the mountains in our own backyard. The Native Americans place value and importance on names, especially names given to places, these names usually sum up the essence of a place. The Natives call these mountains the Adirondacks, which comes from the Mohawk “ha-de-ron-da,” which means tree eaters. According to French Missionaries, this was a derogatory reference to their primitive predecessors who did not pratice agriculture, and when the winters became brutally harsh, would eat tree bark to survive. Beneath the Earth in the Adirondack, Green, and Shawangunk Mountain Forests, there are archaeological and anthropological discoveries to be made, but beware if you go there, never go alone, and always in the warm seasons.

There is a profound connection to made here between the Ojibwe Wendigo, Easter Island “long ears,” Greek Satyrs, and the Biblical Nephilim. It is wildly complex and I explore it in greater depth in my book; however, suffice it to say that the research clearly reveals that the Biblical Nephilim are absolutely equivalent to the Ojibwe Wendigo, Easter Island “long-eared” giants, and Greek Satyrs. I recommend reading this article in combination with the Easter Island article for more depth.

Basil Johnston was a Native American Elder and PhD who left a legacy of exquisite ethnological writings. Contained within them, we find the physical description of the Wendigo or Windigo, which they state was an ancient hominid-human, cave dwelling species of emaciated giant cannibals, with supernatural abilities. The Bureau of Ethnology, many historical societies, and newspapers from the area, around late 19th early 20th century, report that giant skeletons were unearthed all over the Hudson and Champlain Valleys, precisely where we find these cairns, dolmen/trilithon balancing boulder structures, where all these people disappear, where there are aerial phenomena, where we find ancient glyphs from the Old World, and, where three landmasses intersect.

Now, compare this description to the Moai Kavakava idols of Easter Island.

Just as Easter Island sits atop the Nazca Tectonic Plate and contains a labyrinthian cave system of volcanic tubes, so too does this valley contain a void leading down into the Underworld. Where we find an entrance to the subterranean ecosystem, we find these same anomalous phenomena- sightings and archaeological reports of hominids or anthropomorphic figures, luminous aerial objects, missing people, and archaeological traces of some lost race.

Basil Johnston’s insight into the Wendigo is perfectly mirrored by the Moai-Kavakava wooden icon figures of Easter Island. These wood idols are the same beings as the enormous Moai, but they are more detailed and were allegedly worn around the necks of the giant “long-eared” giants who carved them, all as part of an ancestral cult, which I will now demonstrate is the same ancestral worship mentioned in the Bible as the demonic religion of the Nephilim. Enoch 7 describes how humanity used to coexist with the Nephilim, until makind “could no longer sustain them,” at which point they turned on Homo sapiens, devouring them along with many other species like birds and snakes.

World famous biologist David Attenborough recently purchased an elusive Moai-Kavakava at auction, you can see in the image I took of it below, that the icon has six fingers, and all of them are depicted as emaciated giants. We also know for an archaeological fact that ritual cannibalism did occur on Easter Island, as did a conflict between the Homo sapiens of Polynesian descent, and the oppressive giant cannibals who lived seperately in caves. In the Book of Samuel 21:20, we find reference to relatives of Goliath, in battles against the Homo sapiens, being vanquished, and that they all “descend from the giant/Nephilim.” One is said to be “of giant stature” with “six fingers and toes on each hand and foot, twenty four in total.”

Celtic Ogham (an ancient Old World script) has been discovered and verified by leading experts, carved into the stones of ancient America, in this very same region. Harvard Scholar Barry Fell, president of Yale and theologian Ezra Stiles, and modern day Mayan epigrapher of great renown David H. Kelley, all observed that the script carved into stones like Dighton Rock in Massachusetts, are indeed Celtic Ogham, which poses quite a problem for mainstream narratives of American History.

Gigantic, cave dwelling, emaciated cannibals, who abduct Homo sapiens for ritualistic/cannibalistic motives and who were ultimately vanquished or disenfranchised by growing Homo sapien populations, this is the pattern. The cultural narratives are indeed confirmed by the archaeological, fossil, and geological records. Behold! Here, we have the solution to the missing person phenomena. This is why so many people vanish in such strange and mysterious circumstances around the alleged “wilderness reserves,” and “UNESCO World Heritage Sites,” these areas are in reality, the territory of Nephilim descendants and geological upheaval zones with entrances to the Underworld.


Dooling, Michael C. “Clueless in New England: The Unsolved Disappearances of Paula Welden.” Connie Smith and Katherine Hull. The Carrollton Press, 2010.  

Gilson, Roger Hannigan. “Searching for Ancient Civilizations in the Catskills.” July 27, 2018.

New England Historical Society. “Six Mysterious Stone Structures of New England.”  

 Rutland Herald. “Glastenbury Tales: Town offers no clues to mysteries hanging over it.”(Nov. 8, 1999).

Trento, Salvatore M. “A Stone Cairn Excavation Masters Lake N.Y.” Early Sites Bulletin. Volume 9 number 1, pp. 16-17. 1981.

Aerial Phenomena


By Mark A. Carpenter


Recently, the United States signed into law fifty-five hundred pages of legislation, most of which dealt with economic stimulus. But it dealt with something else too. It also contained the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021. In the committee comment section is a heading “Advanced Ariel Threats.” The provision mandates that the director of national intelligence collaborate with the secretary of defense to forge a detailed report which discloses everything the government knows about unidentified flying objects, a moniker they have now discarded, in favor of others like unidentified aerial phenomena or anomalous aerial vehicles.

  The U.S. Navy confirmed that three videos circulating the internet were indeed authentic and were captured by Navy Jet pilots. Pentagon spokeswoman Sue Gough admitted that the images of the rapid moving, glowing vehicles, one sphere shaped, another acorn shaped, a “metallic blimp,” and many others, were being studied by the newly formed Unidentified Aerial Phenomena Task Force. These revelations have explosive implications that will cause us to reexamine our scientific paradigms of human origins. Where do we come from? This is probably the most fundamental question within the human condition, and to even attempt answering it, we must explore the origins of all life on Earth.


Abiogenesis is the prevailing, although highly speculative and controversial, narrative about how life originated on Earth. Essentially, this theory holds that over millions of years of primordial, evolutionary processes, non-living matter transitioned into living cells. Then, simple, cellular lifeforms gradually began to develop, via natural selection, and after epochs of competition driven genetic mutation/adaptation, a myriad of biodiverse species were born. This theory has been propped up since the fifties as scientific fact, and proponents of it point to a series of experiments from the fifties in which some amino acids were successfully synthesized from inorganic compounds. The problem is, some amino acids are not remotely equivalent to the proteins required to constitute even the most basic cellular life, and then, even these proteins fall far short of the wonderous complexity that is a living cell. In fact, the more molecular biotechnology advances, so to does our understanding of how incredibly complex cells are.


Alternatively, the theory of panspermia holds that life arose elsewhere in the universe, through unspecified processes, and was then spread to planet Earth by a medium like an asteroid, comet, meteorite, or space dust. Modern, definitive studies have concluded that complex, organic molecules exist within this solar system and in interstellar space. It is then, quite probable that these fundamental building blocks of life arrived here by way of these mechanisms.

Directed Panspermia

Directed panspermia can be defined as the deliberate transportation of complex, organic life through space with the goal of introducing species onto lifeless, but habitable astronomical objects. In other words, an intelligent species, utilizing high technology, intentionally inoculating planets or moons in order to stimulate the development of life. This is not science fiction. Highly acclaimed, world renowned scientists like Francis Crick, Leslie Orgel, Sydney Brenner, and many others, endorse this theory and published extensive studies on the subject. It’s worth mentioning that Brenner shared a Nobel Prize for his work on deciphering the genetic code, and that Francis Crick (along with James Watson) discovered the DNA helix, won the Nobel Prize, and gave birth to genetic science as we know it.

Darwinian, And Definition Of Life Disclaimers

It’s important to point out that life itself is not easily defined. There are hundreds of definitions, and in some cases, entire chapters have been exclusively devoted to defining this fundamental word/concept. According to modern biologists Jane Reece and Neil Campbell, “The phenomenon we call life defies a simple, one-sentence definition.” The definition preferred by NASA is that life is a “self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution.” In other words, life is, “matter that can reproduce itself and evolve as survival dictates.” This brings us to Charles Darwin.

The favoring of directed or undirected panspermia should not be misinterpreted of a revolt against the concept of Darwinian evolution. Unfortunately, Darwinian evolution has accumulated a great deal of connotations and assumptions which intertwine the origins of life, alongside the process by which life adapts to its environment. It is commonly believed that Darwin’s Origin of Species, is well established, scientific fact. The process of evolution, meaning the natural selection driven, genetic mutations/adaptations, is well established science; however, this process as the origin of all life, is not, at all, scientific fact. Additionally, there’s strong evidence in modern studies of molecular biology that the competitive nature of this process has been overestimated, and that the process may be much more symbiotic.

The Dawn of Man

Genetic studies literature indicates that primates diverged from mammals about 85 million years ago. Then the various, great ape subfamilies diverged around 20-15 million years ago. From there, it is speculated that a locomotion transition to bipedalism occurred about 7-6 million years ago. This theoretical transition enabled the earliest human ancestors to migrate throughout the globe; however, some anthropologists studying the development of bipedalism, have stated that this evolution in gait alone could not have sufficiently empowered these primates to fan out around the world.

They have found that bipedalism, tool construction, and the manipulation of fire would’ve be necessary to achieve spread of human ancestors. It is further believed by the leading authorities that these advancements then triggered rapid encephalization (perpetual brain growth), beginning around 2 million years ago. Finally, we have archaic and modern humans emerging from a complicated tree of interbreeding hominin species around 4-2 hundred thousand years ago.

The So Called, Ancient Astronaut Hypothesis

  Ancient Greek thinkers like Plato, Pythagoras, and many others, wrote in great detail about how the deities of mythology were real, had initiated the natural processes, as well as inoculated the planet with life. Of course, these ideas came after thousands of years of paradigmatic belief in pantheons of deities as the creators of humanity and the world. The religious paradigms were largely relegated to mere tradition with the rise of Darwinism and the industrial revolution. There exists a centuries old, ideological death match between religious and scientific worldviews which took hold during the Renaissance when Roman Church authorities responded to scientific explorations by condemning them and their ideas under the threat of death and excommunication.

In the mid twentieth century, authors of alternative history began publishing books about out of place artifacts and thereby popularized a fusion of science and mythology that has become known as the ancient astronaut hypothesis. This concept asserts that the deities of ancient mythology were actually intelligent, non-human species, who utilized advanced technology to establish life on Earth and bequeathed the arts and sciences of civilization to humanity in the distant past. This mainstream popularization was fueled, in part, by an ever growing collection of sightings by people across the world of anomalous aerial phenomena, and by the progress made in aerospace related fields.

Defining Deities

A deity can be defined as a supernatural being that has the capability of influencing the forces of nature, observes humanity, and periodically intervenes in the affairs of human beings. It’s interesting that by this definition, an elder species that observes, and occasionally interacts with, human civilization, is well within the parameters of scientific probability. Even with countless sightings, physical evidence of high-tech in ancient times, and the postulations of great thinkers like Crick, Newton, Einstein, Tesla, Pythagoras, Plato, the notion that such “deities” or elder lifeforms are, at least, intermittently present, and observing mankind’s civilization, is often met by vitriolic ridicule and skepticism.

Most of the opponents of this concept, whether they’re aware of it or not, are incited by flawed reasoning intravenously fed into their consciousness by Darwinian evolutionist zealots who themselves are guilty of confirmation bias and cognitive dissonance, if not outright scientific misconduct. These authorities were much chagrined by the work of Dr. Francis Crick and his colleagues, as his intellectual prowess was, and is, beyond reproach due to his and Watson’s discovery of the DNA helix. They (the oligarchic authorities) regard these theories as heresy (tragically ironic), and this is why even to this day, the mainstream public is mostly unaware of them.

The Anomalous Aerial Vehicles

In a televised interview with CBS correspondents, US Senator Marco Rubio (R-Fla.), who at the time was the vice chair of the intelligence committee, said “The bottom line is these things are flying over your military bases and you don’t know what they are because they aren’t yours and they are exhibiting- potentially- technologies that you don’t have at your disposal, that to me is a national security risk and one that we should be looking into.” Here’s another wrinkle in that these state officials are approaching their public statements as if these could potentially be foreign adversaries who have made secret technological leaps.

They’re also pretending as if the US military hasn’t been studying these phenomena….they have. The Advanced Aerospace Threat Identification Program was uncovered not long ago and it was run by intelligence official Louis Elizondo who publicly called for disclosure of the project’s findings. While existence of the project has been made public, its findings are still classified. It is clear that the US government is thoroughly compromised via corruption, and the public will never know what they would prefer we not.

Secrets of the Heart

The United Nations, and the international bankers that control it along with the World Economic Forum, The Council on Foreign Relations, and the Rockefeller Foundation, are the people who have decided that human history is their aristocratic privelege. When John D. Rockefeller founded the education system in America, he said “I don’t want thinkers, I want workers.” These are the same people who instigate world wars, execute eugenics and pharmaceutical schemes to exploit and depopulate humanity. Their secret cabals consider this information their exclusive domain. They control the scientific institutions through funding, by which they also control politicians, and together, they conspire to conceal the various realities of human history.

I predict, they will continue to escalate crisis narratives involving potential interstellar & international warfare, including biological and cyber attacks, until the entire population of the planet is firmly gripped in a technocratic police state. In this new world order, the ruling elite will institute an obligatory policy of biological monitoring and digital currency by way of biological computer implants. They will use holographic technology, bioengineerd viruses, and cutting edge black technology, to deceive the masses into believing conflicts abound, when in reality, they conspire to enslave all humanity.

“You will continually hear of wars and rumors of wars. Do not be frightened, for these things must take place, and that is not yet the end of the age” (Matthew 24:6). The “rumors” of war referred to, does indeed mean false flag attacks, as “rumors of wars,” was rather irrelevant in the geopolitics of ancient times, but now, is the favorite mechanism of ruling elites to manipulate society.

The otherworldly presence is real, and has been present since the dawn of civilization. The operators of these vehicles, these are not visitors on a scientific or military expedition from another solar system, no. These are the invasive hominid hybrid Nephilim descendants who dwell within the Hollow Earth. They are an ancient civilization of demonic hybrid refugees, awaiting imminent obliteration.

Harvard’s Top Astronomer And Oumuamua     

In late 2017, Hawaiian astronomers discovered the first ever interstellar object as it passed through our solar system, naming it Oumuamua. At first, it was designated a comet, but then, it turned out not to fit the criteria for a comet, so they changed it to an asteroid. But then, they realized it had come from outside our solar system and therefore needed its own, new designation-an interstellar object. The name itself is Hawaiian and roughly translates to “messenger from the distant past.” Avi Loeb is the chairman of Harvard’s astronomy department who has boldly pointed out that the object is moving too fast to be an inert rock and is not emitting jets of steam like a comet. His position is that it cannot be a lump of rock as has been suggested, and in his expert opinion, the only scenario that fits with the data is an object that originated from another intelligent civilization. Loeb has also pointed out that it’s arrogant believe that we are alone in the universe, or even an especially unique species.

The Moonwalkers

Apollo astronaut Al Worden made an appearance on Good Morning Britain some years ago, and before the show wrapped up, the host asked him if he believed in “extraterrestrials.” Worden responded that he did, and that he knew they existed because he saw them everyday. The hosts laughed, misinterpreting his statement as a joke. But he wasn’t joking and told them so. He went on to explain that in his expert opinion, in the distant, prehistoric past, an intelligent species seeded life on Earth. He then suggested reading Sumerian Mythology before the host flew into a panic, ending the program.

Another moonwalking astronaut, Buzz Aldrin, has stated publicly that an anomalous, two-hundred meter tall object on Mars, is in his expert opinion, evidence of a non human civilization. But perhaps the most intriguing of the moonwalkers is Edgar Mitchell and his email that was uncovered by the Wikileaks revelations. In an email sent from Mitchell to the Clinton camp (while Hillary was secretary of state and running for president), Mitchell said “Remember, our nonviolent ETI from the contiguous universe are helping us bring zero point energy to Earth. They will not tolerate any forms of military violence on Earth or in space.” ETI is short for extraterrestrial intelligence and zero point energy is a clean, inexhaustible energy source.


What conclusions can be drawn from this one-hundred-eighty degree reversal by the US government, and what impact does it have on human origin paradigms? First and foremost, the US government’s long held position that these are simply misconstrued aerial/optical illusions has all the while been a complete farce. No surprised there for the discerning researcher. Also, it seems that quite a few of the previously mentioned, vitriolic skeptics are due up for a long, humiliating, force fed, cornucopia feast of cold crow meat. But what these disclosure really mean is that theories like those of Francis Crick, James Watson, Sydney Brenner, Leslie Orgel, and others are being tremendously reinforced.

It’s one thing to speculate that somewhere out there, in the distant reaches of the universe (or multiverse) exists other intelligent lifeforms, but if such lifeforms are present, then the likelihood of their influence regarding the origination of life on this planet goes up ten-thousand fold. In this realm of theoretical science is a concept known as the Fermi Paradox. The Fermi Paradox posits that based on the age of the universe (approximately 15 billion years old), and its vast size (so large its boundaries are unknown), and given what we know about our own development, the universe should therefore, be teaming with intelligent life or at least littered with remnants of it. But, the Fermi Paradox is only paradoxical based on the assumption of abiogenesis.

How do these reversals interlink with ancient tradition exactly? A universal aspect of prehistoric cultures is the existence of an underground realm, inhabited by deities and monsters. Another near universal element round the world, is the interbreeding between deities and humans, thereby spawning gigantic, invasive hybrid hominids. Conflict between factions of deities and their monstrous hybrid descendants and between these descendants and Homo sapeins is another recurring theme, this one, backed by the arcaheological and fossil records, in terms of inter-species conflict being a major factor in the downfall of hominids like Neanderthals. Besides this species collapse, we of course have the fractured mosaic of bizarre megalithic structures, scattered about and lost beneath lush canopies and the sands of time.

Hapgood, Einstein, and Jules Verene (known today as a “prophet of science fiction,”) suggested in their writings that the Earth may be hollow, containing an internal light and heat source which nourishes a thriving and wonderously strange subteranean ecosystem. Our species has discovered about one percent of all cave systems on Earth. Of that one percent, we have mapped maybe one percent of that. We know more about the surface of the moon, than we do the depths of the ocean or what tuleric mysteries are percolating at the center of the Earth, hence we have the Hollow Earth Theory.

Secrets of the Heart

Many Native American traditions, recount their bloodline’s emergence from the underworld, often lead by a deity or demigod, who guides them to the surface and aids them in establishing civilization. In the Biblical traditon, we find that in the book of Enoch, the rebellious Seraphim (angelic beings, “watchers,” “fiery ones/serpents”), were improsined in Sheol and the evil spirits of their hybrid progeny likewise, imprisoned in the desolate places of the Earth … like these UNESCO World Heritage Sites, megalithic ruins, and National Parks where people have been going missing for centuries.

My friends, it is both my privelage and my misfortune to share with you my personal insight, that another universal aspect of these narratives is an inevitable & cataclysmic resurgence of this conflict. A great showdown between underworld demons and monsters against their sky-dwelling/interdimensional bretheren. It is clear reason then, that both ancient tradition and modern militaries are recognizing the same conflict with humanity caught in the cosmic crossfire.

The secret societies that control our civilization including our militaries, are themselves of “royal/divine,” lineage. In other words, highly diluted Nephilim descendants, hence their precopuation with tyrany, environmental rape, and demonic occultism. Beware, that these institutions and oligarchs who operate them, are the descendants of underworld Nephilim species whom are the pilots of the mystery vehicles, and the inhabitants of the Hollow Earth Civilization; therefore, contact between our civilization and this “other” will most likely be a catastrophic re-establishing of Nephilim domination of our species, triggering another climactic showdown and inevitable extermination, of both Nephilim descendant relic species, watchers, and Homo sapien souls aligned with their ancestral demons, rather than their benevolent creator.

The “Days of Noah,” refer to the lost chapters of human history, in which the entire globe was filled with violence, public state-sanctioned demonic worship, human sacrifice, cannibalism, and utter devestation of animal species. Greek and Roman Traditions call this the Golden Era, “gold” referring to the highest level of sophistication, a time in which the deities and Nephilim dwelt alongside mankind, on the surface, the icons of tyrannical ancestor cults. Today, we see the fullfilment of prophecy, as the Homo sapiens who descend from the Nephilim (Homo sapein, secret society oligarchs) are aligning with otherworldly, ancient civilizations from within the Earth, all under the false flag deception of an interstellar threat, precisely as Wernher Von Braun (grandfather of rocket technology), predicted. Although it seems he was unaware of the correlation between his science, Hindu, Abrahamic, Mayan, and Nordic apocalyptic prophecies, and the hazard to our souls.

“When you hear of wars and rumors of wars, do not be frightened; those things must take place; but that is not yet the end.” Mark 13:7

“The whole world was filled with wonder and followed the beast. People worshiped the dragon because he had given authority to the beast, and they also worshiped the beast and asked, “Who is like the beast? Who can wage war against it?'”

“Then I saw a second beast, coming out of the earth. It had two horns like a lamb, but it spoke like a dragon. It exercised all the authority of the first beast on its behalf, and made the earth and its inhabitants worship the first beast, whose fatal wound had been healed. And it performed great signs, even causing fire to come down from heaven to the earth in full view of the people. Because of the signs it was given power to perform on behalf of the first beast, it deceived the inhabitants of the earth. It ordered them to set up an image in honor of the beast who was wounded by the sword and yet lived.” 

“The second beast was given power to give breath to the image of the first beast, so that the image could speak and cause all who refused to worship the image to be killed. It also forced all people, great and small, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on their right hands or on their foreheads, so that they could not buy or sell unless they had the mark, which is the name of the beast or the number of its name.”

“18 This calls for wisdom. Let the person who has insight calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man. That number is 666. ” Revelation 13

“For the Lamb in the midst of the throne will be their shepherd, and he will guide them to springs of living water, and God will wipe away every tear from their eyes.”

“Look, God’s home is now among his people! He will live with them, and they will be his people. God himself will be with them. And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; and there shall be no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall there be any more pain: for the former things are passed away.” Revelation 7

“Those who are victorious will inherit all this, and I will be their God and they will be my children. But cowards, unbelievers, the corrupt, murderers, the immoral, those who practice witchcraft, idol worshipers, and all liars—their fate is in the fiery lake of burning sulfur. This is the second death.” Revelation 21:7


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Thebault, Reis. “Thanks to Trump-era Covid relief bill, a UFO may soon be public-and it’ll be big, ex official says.” The Washington Post. March 23, 2021.

Egypt’s Buried & Layer Pyramids: Unsolved Homicide & Hidden Heritage

By Mark Andrew Carpenter


Beneath the sun scorched sands of the Giza Necropolis sleeps the enchanted ruins of ancient Egyptian civilization. While the secretive Sphinx and the spectacular Great Pyramid rush to mind, there are many tombs and pyramids most have never heard of. Perhaps these monuments and tombs are simply lost in the myriad of magnificent historical treasures, but then again, perhaps they are not only buried beneath the sands of time, and the sands of the desert, but even deeper still, perhaps they’re also figuratively buried by authorities on account of what they might reveal.

The Buried Pyramid

The moniker “Buried Pyramid” is not for literary effect, this is its actual name due to the fact that it was seemingly an incomplete construction of a step pyramid with the base barely rising above ground level, hence the name Buried Pyramid. It is also known as the Pyramid of Sekhmekhet after the pharaoh Sekhmekhet Djoserty, second ruler of the Third Dynasty-2686 to 2613 BC. It is very nearby and similar to, the much more well known, Step Pyramid of Saqqara, which was built for Sekhmekhet’s predecessor Djoser. The Buried Pyramid did have its fifteen minutes of fame in the early fifties when it was first discovered.

The Discovery   

In 1951, Egyptologist Zakaria Goneim was participating in excavations at the Unas Complex when he found what turned out to be a wall of another complex, and eventually he uncovered the pyramid at the complex’s center. Over the course of subsequent excavations, Goneim unearthed artifacts like beads, cosmetic cases, jars, and golden jewelry inscribed with Sekhmekhet’s name. After three years, on May 31, 1954, he discovered a sarcophagus with the alabaster seals perfectly in tact and funerary wreaths adorning the lid, all of which is clear indication of an undisturbed burial. The media was alerted generating significant fascination and interest, but suspiciously, an entire month went by before the sarcophagus was opened in front of cameras, journalists, and state officials. Supposedly, the delay in opening the sarcophagus was due to some trouble in removing the lid, (a minor challenge for a veteran archaeologist like Goneim.)  

The Persecution of Zakaria Goneim  

On June 26, 1954 the day had finally arrived, but in a bizarre twist, despite the sarcophagus having surely been sealed and undisturbed for millennia, when it was opened for the cameras and the press it was empty. There was understandable, collective disappointment and some headlines criticized Goneim, but interestingly, among the state officials present was the then Egyptian President Nasser, who actually defended Goneim and praised him for his efforts. Goneim went on to publish his book The Buried Pyramid and also went on a corresponding lecture tour of the United States, all of which was very successful. But around this same time, for reasons that are unclear, Goneim was being targeted and by the same Egyptian state officials present at the excavation.

False Accusations and Suspicious Death  

Each time Goneim returned home to Egypt he was subjected to interrogation by the authorities and he was under constant surveillance, and to reiterate, there was no discernable crime or wrongdoing of any kind. After already having been subjected to this for sometime, Goneim was officially accused of smuggling a valuable artifact out of the country. At this point, the stalking and interrogations intensified even though his reputation was impeccable and other esteemed Egyptologist colleagues like the famed Jean-Phillipe Lauer were steadfastly defending him. Lauer managed to find the relic Goneim was accused of smuggling, hidden away in the bowels of the Egyptian Museum. But just as Goneim was about to be publicly vindicated for a crime he never committed, his lifeless body was found floating in the Nile. The case was never definitively solved, some suggest it was suicide, a theory which his friends and family found offensive and vehemently reject.

Ultimately Unresolved

Lauer took up the torch of his friend and colleague, and in 1963 he did more excavations at the complex. This second excavation cleared more subterranean chambers/tunnels and discovered more artifacts similar to what Goneim had discovered, animal bones, jars, and jewelry, but no mummy was ever officially discovered, and before the entire complex could be unearthed, all study of the site was halted and no further research has been done on the site since. Even though, according to the official narrative, Sekhmekhet’s royal tomb must be interred close by within the complex. Currently, the buried pyramid site is open to the public; however, access to the substructures is off limits.

Other Oddities

Twenty-five years before Goneim uncovered the Buried Pyramid, he participated in excavating what seems to have been a section of the Giza Necropolis dedicated to elite dwarves. Between 1925 and 1926, Goneim and his colleagues located the tomb of Seneb-a wealthy advisor to Khufu and Djeder whose lavish mastaba tomb indicated that he was of extremely high status. A statue of Seneb and his family is currently on display in the Cairo Museum and this statue (among other artistic depictions) leads Egyptologists to strongly suspect that Seneb suffered from the disability achondroplasia. Decades later, surrounding mastaba tombs were also found to contain little people of high status, like Pereniankh, Djeho, and Khnumhotep, it is further speculated that Pereniankh may have been the father of Seneb.

The fact that Pharaohs granted dwarves extremely high status is not entirely unique, as other ancient cultures held little people in high regard and many other royal courts included them among their ranks; however, what is strange, is that all of these tombs were supposedly looted of the skeletons except for one, that of Pereniankh, but even this mummy/skeleton seems to have been subsequently hidden away. Grave robbers are typically after the grave goods not the mummy itself, and while its certainly not beyond them to swipe the entirety of the remains, it’s more likely that the ravaged remains would be scattered about the tomb; furthermore, looter activity cannot explain the missing Pereniankh remains, which would surely make for intriguing study and a crowd pleasing display.      

The Layer Pyramid

Not far from the Buried Pyramid and the Step Pyramid of Djoser, within the necropolis of Zawiyet El Aryan, rests the ruins of the Layer Pyramid. This is another very similar step pyramid of the Third Dynasty whose excavation history is odd. John Shae Perring was the first to investigate the pyramid in 1839, and it was intermittently studied over the next sixty years by two different teams. Interest was renewed once again from 1900-1910 by another pair of teams, most notable of which was the Italian Egyptologist and architect Alessandro Barsanti. After all these excavations, no artifacts have been discovered and the reports on the subterranean passages are in direct disagreement with each other.

Contradictions Galore 

Not only do the official diagrams of the substructure conflict with one another, but the experts cannot even agree on some very fundamental aspects of the structure. The majority faction insists that the pyramid was never completed, possibly the result of the pharaoh for whom it was intended, dying prematurely; however, this view is not unanimous, as other experts like German Egyptologist Rainer Stadelmann, believe that the pyramid was indeed completed. The primary underground chamber, that is supposed to have been the burial chamber of the king, is also problematic, because the gallery leading to it could not have had a sarcophagus transported through it due to its narrow dimensions. Furthermore, above this chamber is a massive gallery that is missing entirely from the report of the later (1910) excavation.

Sealed and Buried

In 1970, this random patch of desert was designated a restricted military zone, making modern investigation and public access impossible. Perhaps the strangest fact regarding the Layer Pyramid, is that all these subterranean passages, chambers, and galleries have been deliberately filled in with sand. Another oddity worth pointing out, is that this “military zone” is small patch of desert in the center of Egypt with no militaristic/strategic significance. It’s quite a ways off from any border and the only significance of the area at all seems to be the historically significant ruins beneath the sand. Simple Google Earth observations indicate little if any real military presence, aside from a few small structures, meanwhile hundreds of miles away, in much more potentially hostile regions, are sites teaming with tourists and archaeologists.

Hardly A World Heritage Site

In 1979, UNESCO officially forged the World Heritage Site: Memphis and Its Necropolis- The Pyramid Fields from Giza to Dahshur. This definition places the Layer and Buried Pyramids (and this military zone) right smack in the center of this “World Heritage Site.” The definition of a World Heritage Site is as follows: “a natural or man-made site, area, or structure recognized as being of outstanding international importance and therefore deserving special protection.” Needless to say, it defeats the purpose of a World Heritage Site if it overlaps with a restricted military area, just as it defeats the archaeological purposes to fill in sites that took years to be excavated. The restrictions only apply to this one little piece of a vast desert, the remainder of which, is fully accessible to the public all the way up to the borders.

Unanswered Questions

Why was Goneim being persecuted and why was he falsely accused of smuggling artifacts after a quarter century of upstanding work? Was Zakaria Goneim murdered, and if so, who had motivation to do so? Is there something in his book or that he was revealing in his lectures that provoked the authorities to persecute him? Was the sarcophagus of the Buried Pyramid truly empty, or was the suspicious month delay an effort to conceal its contents? How can multiple archaeological teams come up with such radically conflicting diagrams of the Layer Pyramid’s substructure? Why would years of excavation be done only to be refilled with sand? Why would a military zone be created atop important archaeological sites when the area has no strategic value?

Secrets and Speculations  

It is of course entirely possible that Goneim committed suicide; however, it seems more likely that the he was murdered, and clearly, there was hostility towards him from the state. Never before in the history of Egyptology has a sarcophagus been discovered with the alabaster seals in tact and with funerary wreaths adorning it, only to be empty. The outright denial of the existence of chambers is an ongoing theme in Egyptian archaeology. In 2017, Japanese physicists utilizing cutting edge technology discovered a massive void within the Great Pyramid, but despite the undeniable implications of this hidden chamber, Egyptologists were quick to deny. “There’s zero chance of hidden burial chambers,” said Egyptologist Aidon Dodson from the University of Bristol, clearly, Dodson’s expertise is not in statistical probabilities, but this obtuse position of denial, suppression, and or cognitive dissonance is par for the course in Egyptology, and has been for over a century.


G.A. Reisner and C.S. Fisher: “The Work of the Harvard University – Museum of Fine Arts Egyptian Expedition” (pyramid of Zawiyet el-Aryan), Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts (BMFA) 9, Boston, No. 54 Vol. IX (December 1911), pp. 54-59.

Kozma, Chahira. “Dwarfs in Ancient Egypt.” American Journal of Medical Genetics 140A:   303-311 (2006). Department of Pediatrics, Georgetown University Hospital. Washington DC. Wiley-Liss, Inc. (2005). 

Lehner, Mark. “Z500 and the Layer Pyramid of Zawiyet El Aryan.” October 10, 2014 

Lehner, Mark. The Complete PyramidSolving the Ancient Mysteries, London: Thames & Hudson, pages 84, 94, 96, (2008).

Marchant, Jo. “Cosmic-ray Particles Reveal Secret Chamber in Egypt’s Great Pyramid.” Nature/News, November, 2 2017.


By Mark A. Carpenter


Deep in the old-growth forests of Northwestern America lives a glorious gem of natural beauty. Crater Lake is renowned for its extreme depth, vibrant color, and crystal clarity. The towering cinders of the crater rim are contrasted by the lush, ancient forest. Heavy snows and rain keep the dormant caldera perpetually filled with pristine blue water, fit for human consumption. This geological wonder was originally called “Deep Blue Lake” and “Witch’s Cauldron,” the Native America language Klamath, refers to the lake as giiwas, which is loosely translated as “sacred place.” This place is not only a splendor of the natural world, it is a sacred place to the Native Americans, and even more still, to this day, many strange events unfold here.

The Lake Itself

The lake is believed by geologists to have been created upon the destruction and collapse of Mount Mazama back when it was volcanically active. It is the deepest lake in the United States and one of the deepest on planet Earth. It’s average depth of a 1000 feet (304 meters), ranks third worldwide and its maximum depth (2000 feet/610 meters), ranks ninth of all lakes on the planet. Hot springs and fumaroles (geothermic cavities that vent natural gases) bejewel the crater rim, and volcanological studies indicate there is still some lingering hydrothermal activity in the depths of the abyss. The cataclysmic eruption that is believed to have collapsed the volcanic mountain summit, is thought to have occurred very recently, around 4600 BCE.

Wizard Island

Wizard Island is one of only two small islands in the lake. This little island is in the form of an almost perfect cylindrical cone and was named wizard in reference to the pointy hats, this combined with the fog swirling around the rocky cylinder resembles a wizard’s hat and white flowing beard. In the warmer seasons park rangers will ferry visitors out to the island to explore. Wizard Island has developed lore of its own over the years, because many different rangers have claimed repeatedly to have seen human looking figures and fire burning on the island at night when the park is utterly desolate. The stories are consistent that once rangers swiftly motor out to the island to investigate, there is nobody present and there is no fire.

Phantom Ship Island

Phantom Ship Island is the other of the two islands. This island is a series of jagged points rising up about 160 feet (49 meters) from the lakes surface. The steep points, with their sharp, angular rise and fall, and alone on the liquid surface, vaguely resembles the masts of a ship, and when the fogs swoop in and climb out of the caldera, the ship seems to eerily disappear and reappear.

Old Man of the Lake

The Old Man of the Lake is the nickname given to a famous geological oddity at the lake. The oddity, is a 30-foot-tall tree sump, which has been bleached by the sun to a bright white, and has apparently been floating in the lake for over a century, and perhaps even much longer than that. A unique moss grows on the Old Man, a moss that is only otherwise present very deep within the lake, and so, this has been theorized as to the mechanism by which is remains buoyant. Various experiments have been done on the Old Man, they have determined the tree to be about 450 years old and that it travels quite extensively through the lake, sometimes with unusual speed. In 1988, ecologists were conducting submarine explorations at the lake. They decided to secure the Old Man to the far side of Wizard Island, in order to mitigate any possible safety or navigational hazards that could arise from the tree floating above them as they attempt to ascend to the surface. But when they tied the Old Man to the island, the weather suddenly took a drastic turn for the worse, and it continued to worsen, until there was heavy snowfall in August. The moment they released the Old Man from his bonds, the weather cleared, adding yet another layer of lore to this place. 

Sacred Place of the Klamath

The Klamath, Modoc, Yahooskin, and other Native American tribes have called the Klamath Basin home for over ten thousand years. It was only in 1853 that Europeans first “discovered” the lake, and this was of course, by accident as they were prospectors searching for gold. According to the tribal history of the Klamath, their people signed a treaty with Uncle Sam in 1864 which designated the giiwas, or Crater Lake, as within their sovereign territory; however, Uncle Sam it seems, had another interpretation and made it into Crater Lake National Park in 1902.

Klamath Sacred Mountain of Creation

There are a few different existing variations on the Klamath myths revolving around the lake, but the core elements remain constant in all the versions. Barbara Alatorre is a Klamath Tribal Member and Klamath Historian, she relays her peoples’ story which sanctifies the crater as a place of creation. “Before time began, giant Spirit Beings came down to earth through a hole in the sky, pushing ice down to build giant mountains. The first mountain built was Moy Yaina (Big Mountain — where Mt. Mazama now stands).The Spirit Beings created the rest of the Klamath terrain by digging tunnel-like caverns beneath the earth, pushing up the hills and mountains forming the Cascade Range. They dug the channels for rivers: created the marshes, and hundreds of springs bubbled up from underground. Giant trees, meadows and plants sprung up everywhere.

Upon completion all of the Spirits returned to the after-world (called Nolis-Gaeni), where others may not go until after death. Only the Spirit Chief, Skell (the Sky Creator), remained behind to create the people (maqlaqs). Skell made his home inside Mt. Shasta (Mlaiksi) at the southern end of the maqlaqs ‘ country. From his spirit bag, Skell selected two bones as he soared over to what is now Klamath Lake where he laid the bones over one another — (giving birth to the Klamaths). Two bones were crossed near Modockni Lake known today as Tule Lake (home of the Modocs). Finally near Goose Lake, bones were laid together (to become progenitors of the Yahooskin and Wal-pah-pe people).”

The Prison of Llao & Gateway to the Underworld

The Klamath tale goes on to describe the Chief of the Underworld Llao, who would occasionally come up to the surface and observe the people living in their splendid realm. Once during one of his spying sessions, he saw Loha who was the daughter of a Klamath Chief. Loha was exceptionally beautiful and refused all suitors which included all the bravest warriors from the surrounding clans. During an important ceremonial observance, Llao sent his supernatural entourage to entice Loha and apparently they dispatched her suitors in blast of orange light. The extravagant gifts, suspicious nature of the entourage, and their otherworldly removal of the suitors overwhelmed Loha with fear. She reported what she had experienced to her father, he and the elders decided to hide her so that Llao could not force to her to live inside the mountain with him as his wife. The tradition then says, that when Llao returned and could not find Loha, and nobody would reveal her whereabouts, he flew into a rage, wreaking havoc beneath the crater in the subterranean realm causing volcanic activity to ravage the people out of revenge.

The Prison of Llao Continued

Two powerful medicine men sought to evoke Skell their benevolent creator to rescue the people from the wrath of Llao, so they walked by torchlight up to the rim and hurled themselves into the underworld as a sacrifice. This commotion did arouse the attention of the creator deity of the sky, and moved by the sacrifice of the medicine men, Skell descended and waged war against Llao, ultimately defeating him. So the Klamaths believe to this day that the crater was created, then filled with water, to imprison Llao and the water to restore tranquility to the area after the fierce battle. And although Skell was victorious and Llao imprisoned, it is still a place of somewhat ominous caution, as this is the entryway into the subterranean realm of Llao, and the demons/monsters that serve him.

Genuinely Dark, Modern Incident #1

On the fourth of July in 1947, there was a very bizarre incident which seem to happen at high frequency near Crater Lake. According to the Crater Lake Foundation, Mr. Cornelius and his wife were vacationing at Crater Lake, when suddenly, Mr. Cornelius handed his wife his wallet and watch before spontaneously sliding down a rock chute, he endured a horrific fall, injuring himself terribly, only to hobble into the lake where he drowned himself. This may be a tragedy of a psychological break from reality, but it is still very strange that someone would elect to commit suicide in such a painful way, with no obvious warning signs or motivations.

Modern Incident #2

In October of 2006, Kenneth Boehlke and his eight year old boy Sammy, were staying at Diamond Lake and decided to visit nearby Crater Lake. According to Kenneth, they stopped in a parking lot near Cleetwood Cove, Sammy and he got out, and proceeded to play a little tag/hide and seek, as they liked to do, and as Sammy went up near a large boulder formation and down the adjacent hill, Kenneth briefly lost sight of him. When Kenneth reached the top of the hill, Sammy was gone. Kenneth contacted park authorities, they analyzed and accepted Kenneth’s distress and initiated a massive search effort that would eventually involve two hundred searchers, helicopters, k9 units, and would last months…but they never found Sammy. The FBI also participated in the search for Sammy, which is worth pointing out because the FBI has very specific criteria that they investigate, a child lost in the woods is not within that criteria.

Modern Incident #3

In 1975, Charles McCuller set out on an epic road trip journey across America, photographing the gorgeous National Parks. He travelled in his Volkswagen from Virginia up to Oregon on a very carefully controlled route and itinerary, keeping in close contact with his parents by systematic phone calls. Charles rendezvoused with friends in Eugene Oregon, then he told them he was going up to the lake to get photographs of the serene winter beauty, estimating he would be back within a day or two. Charles did not return and a major search and rescue effort was launched after some days had passed. Charles’s father, Mr. McCuller, wrote letters to political figures and the FBI expressing frustration with the local search effort. An escalated search effort found no trace of Charles, but a year later, some backpackers alerted a ranger who discovered scant remains of Charles McCuller.

McCuller Incident Continued

This discovery only complicated the issue, because Charles’s remains were discovered fourteen miles from where he had entered the park on foot, and just as he had been arriving at the park, a heavy snowfall occurred, one he was ill prepared for and that presumably facilitated his distress. Also, the majority of his bones were missing only a few feet bones in his socks, a skull, and a jaw bone. The clothes and a few bones were there, and it seemed, they had not moved, almost as if they had collapsed in that spot, but Charles’s belt was undone and pants unbuckled, no sign of his boots, camera, or knife-all of which would’ve been heavier than the clothes-which had bones inside them. The cause of death could not be determined. Mr. McCuller believes his son was the victim of a crime.


These Native American myths and strange, modern incidents are only scratching the surface. There are all manner of reported experiences, legends, and legitimately dark incidents that compound these highlights previously mentioned. There are many more disappearances, there is indeed a vast cave system nearby (Oregon Caves National Monument), and there is a whole slew of experiences reported that are too unbelievable to mention. Ancient myths are easy enough for common people today to dismiss, or at the very least, comfortably interpret these accounts as stylized, metaphorical, or fictional; however, there is a verifiable pattern of strange things happening near this geological marvel. If the geologists are correct, and the fiery event that formed Crater Lake was very recent, then the Klamath would have a collective, traumatic memory; perhaps this mythological battle is their cultural expression of that ecological nightmare? But a basin, echoing with nature myths, haunted by death and destruction unleashed by natural disaster, does not explain the rash of modern incidents which include people vanishing, planes crashing, homicides, suicides, and claims of so called paranormal phenomena-which is only a term for something that falls outside our limited understanding.


Alatorre, Barbara. “How Giiwas (Crater Lake) Came To Be.” 2012.

Jackson County Sheriff’s Department. Cold Case Division. Daniel Joseph Hilkey, Celia Barnes.

“Klamath Tribes Language Project” The Klamath Tribe, 2012. Retrieved 5/30/2021.

National Park Service. Cold Case Roster. Samuel Boehlke October 14, 2006.

Salinas, J. “The Old Man of the Lake”. Nature Notes from Crater Lake National Park, vol. XXVII (1996).

Smith Brothers. “Deaths at Crater Lake National Park.” Crater Lake Institute.

Beowulf & Grendel: Monsters, Mistranslations, & A Genetic Interpretation

By Mark A. Carpenter


The Sixth Century epic poem Beowulf echoes as loud today as it did when it was written fifteen hundred years ago. Ink has been split, careers made, films produced, and academic wars have been waged in the analysis and interpretation of this monumental story. It is only fitting that this great tale of battle and glory, that blurs the line between history and legend, has itself become an intellectual battlefield. One faction has sought, and found, archaeological evidence of historic validation. The other, is intrenched in its position that the account holds little to no historical value, but is an exquisite literary metaphor about human corruption by vanity, wealth, and power. But if the former faction is correct, and the account has some degree of historical accuracy, could there be a nucleus of factuality to the existence of Grendel and his mother? Could the conflict between the Danes and these cave-dwelling, cannibalistic trolls, be a stylized recollection of interspecies hominin warfare?

Quick English Review Time  

  For those who may have dodged their mandatory reading or who were understandably irritated by the Old English awkwardness, Beowulf is a Swedish hero of great renown who sails to aid the Danish king- Hrothgar, whose grand mead hall is being terrorized by the cannibalistic night raids of a grotesque troll- Grendel. Beowulf’s strength and valor are highlighted by the epic poem as it recounts his heroic deeds- he slayed Grendel, his vicious mother, and eventually, Beowulf is crowned king of the Geats. The epic poem climaxes when Beowulf destroyed a dragon, but was mortally wounded in combat, he died with a glorious legacy and like kings before him in Denmark and Sweden, he was entombed within a grand burial mound, rich with fabulous treasure.


The translations that apply to the characteristics and limited descriptions are all steeped in controversy. Nevertheless, there do exist some clues, like the word sceadugenga, which means shadow-walker. When Grendel is tracked to his dwelling, it is an underground cave whose entrance is concealed by a bog. Neither Grendel nor his mother breach the surface during daylight, and when they do, they conduct ambush raids, then quickly retreat back to their subterranean safe haven. The term shadow-walker then, may be a reference to their night-going, nocturnal, or general preference to live in darkness. Although, there do seem to be vague references in the tale to a supernatural shroud of darkness that envelopes Grendel.

Grendel Traits Continued

Nobel Prize winner, Irish poet and translator Seamus Heaney deciphered descriptions of Grendel that indicate he was roughly human, but very large and with hard skin, covered in growths or scales of some kind. “the other, warped in the shape of a man, moves beyond the pale bigger than any man, an unnatural birth, called Grendel by the country people
in former days. Every nail, claw-scale and spur, every spike and welt on the hand of that heathen brute was like barbed steel. Everybody said there was no honed iron hard enough to pierce him through, no time proofed blade that could cut his brutal blood caked claw.”


Grendel’s mother, who he calls “Modor,” is described even less than her son, and similarly the scholars have a variety of translations and interpretations. These include, Ugly troll woman, hag, fiend, warrior woman, monstrous hag wretch. But again, besides these descriptions, it is clear that she is very powerful, (Beowulf barely defeats her thanks to an ancient sword). It is also clear that she lives underground and that she conducted an ambush night raid on the Danes in retaliation for the death of her son.

The Keyword & The Scholar War

The crux of the scholarly debate is this word “áglæca.” The most common translation of this word is monster; however, the way in which it used to describe Beowulf as well as Grendel, his mother, and the dragon, call into question the negative connotation of a monstrosity. The essential function of the poem is to glorify the heroic deeds of Beowulf and this is the problem with the monster translation; alternatively, opponent scholars have suggested the word means something more like warrior or combatant. This translation also leaves something to be desired due to the reality that the dragon, although engaged in battle, is certainly more of a beast or monster than a combatant of warfare. Also, none of the other soldiers in the tale are referred by this word, (Beowulf is constantly surrounded by subordinate soldiers in the story). Only Grendel, his Modor, Beowulf, and the dragon are referred to by this word, with one exception. The epic poem contains a story within a story, in which the word is applied to Sigmunde- a Nordic/Germanic hero of legendary renown.

An Alternative, Genetic Interpretation   

How can this word be reconciled? Perhaps the reason the solution is so elusive is because there is a physical, scientific, even genetic component that distinguishes these characters from the others. Beowulf, according to the story, is not a normal guy. The seemingly inhuman capabilities of Beowulf are easily dismissed as the exaggeration or aggrandization of the hero of a story; however, if this dismissal is delayed and a biological lens is applied there is a possibility that Grendel, his Modor, the dragon, and even to some extant, Beowulf may have been genetic relics of archaic species. Archaic hominins were wild and lethal hunters with physical capabilities, especially combat related, which far exceeded that of Homo sapiens.

Evolutionary biologist and paleontologist at the University of Bath, Dr. Nicholas Longrich describes the scenario of conflict between Homo sapiens and Neanderthals: “Neanderthals probably had tactical and strategic advantages. They’d occupied the Middle East for millennia, doubtless gaining intimate knowledge of the terrain, the seasons, how to live off the native plants and animals. In battle, their massive, muscular builds must have made them devastating fighters in close-quarters combat. Their huge eyes likely gave Neanderthals superior low-light vision, letting them maneuver in the dark for ambushes and dawn raids.”

Neanderthal/Archaic Hominid Extinction and Range Theories

There have been no officially documented discoveries of archaic humans in Denmark, and the long standing anthropological consensus has been that Ice Age conditions of Scandinavia prevented even the cold climate geared Neanderthals from reaching that far North, and of course, there is the oceanic travel issue, all of which seems to indicate there were no archaic hominins in Denmark. The prevailing theories on Neanderthal extinction believe this occurred around 45-50 thousand years ago. But despite all of this, recent discoveries are challenging these paradigms, and this is not uncommon when it comes to the subject of Neanderthals. It was only decades ago when Neanderthals were believed by the experts to be a small step up from apes, with no language, no culture, and who were knuckle walkers, all ideas which were textbook confirmation bias, they were looking for an ape-man, and so, they found one.

Hominid Extinction/Range Theories Continued  

Today, experts know for certain those concepts were not accurate, again Dr. Longrich explains, “Behaviorally, Neanderthals were astonishingly like us. They made fire, buried their dead, fashioned jewelry from seashells and animal teeth, made artwork and stone shrines. If Neanderthals shared so many of our creative instincts, they probably shared many of our destructive instincts, too. The archaeological record confirms Neanderthal lives were anything but peaceful. Neanderthalensis were skilled big game hunters, using spears to take down deer, ibex, elk, bison, even rhinos and mammoths. It defies belief to think they would have hesitated to use these weapons if their families and lands were threatened. Archaeology suggests such conflicts were commonplace.”

Neanderthal Artifacts Discovered On A Danish Island

Lasse Sorensen, head of research at the National Museum in Copenhagen, recently announced “I did not think we would find anything at all, but we have actually found some stones that have possible traces of being humanly worked, and that in itself is amazing. If we find out that these stones have been worked by Neanderthals, we are writing Danish history, and it will resonate all over the world. The door may have been opened for more excavations to be made for Neanderthals in Denmark.” Also, a newly published paper on climate models from Aarhus University in Denmark indicates the climate would have been sufficiently warm for the Neanderthals to have thrived hundreds of thousands of years ago.

The Tricky Game of Extinction

The gold standard of scientific reasoning is that a hypothesis must be testable by experimentation and observation, this makes definitive science regarding the extinction of a species very difficult at best and impossible at worst. Reasonable presumption of a species’ extinction is understandable, but these presumptions have a way of becoming perceived facts. Many other species have been presumed extinct, only to appear alive and well. In some cases, the presumed extinction was believed to have occurred hundreds of millions of years ago. Goblin Sharks, Tree Lobsters, Arakan Forest Turtles, Coelacanths, Night Parrots, Chacoan Peccary, New Guinea Big-Eared Bats, New Guinea Singing Dogs, all these species were believed to be extinct. Other species, like the Giant Squid, were for centuries, believed to not exist at all, except in the imaginations of sailors and storytellers. As a whole, our species tends to overestimate our awareness of the environment, and are quick to jump to biased conclusions regarding the potential existence or extinction of, a species.

Archaic Hominids Interbred and Fought With Homo Sapiens   

Smithsonian paleontologist Briana Pobiner has recently made the suggestion that Neanderthals aren’t exactly extinct. “Some would say Neanderthals didn’t go extinct, because everyone alive today whose ancestry is from outside of Africa (where Neanderthals never lived) carries a little bit of Neanderthal DNA in their genes.” Territorial competition between Neanderthals and Homo sapiens was also cited by Dr. Pobiner and every other expert, as a major contributing factor to the down fall of archaic hominin species like Neanderthal. Flashing back to the Beowulf narrative, the tale begins with the expansion of the Danes’ geographic footprint, as they erect a massive, new mead hall. According to the story, the sound of the Danes merrymaking somehow triggers the cannibalistic night raids of Grendel. Anthropologists on multiple continents have discovered evidence of cannibalism in Neanderthal bone heaps, and the interbreeding that took place was in all likelihood not a romantic, consensual affair. Anthropologists suspect it was more like abductions during these night raids by Neanderthals on the camps of Homo sapiens, resulting in the women being taking captive and impregnated.

Other Elements of Beowulf Validated

Beowulf scholars mostly agree that the main characters of the story were at least based on genuine, sixth century, historical figures. The epic poem references the location of burial mounds belonging to a Geatland king, Eadgils, and the actual site Galma Uppsala, in Sweden was excavated in 1874. The excavations revealed a royal burial of the correct time period, and to some degree, validated the Beowulf account.

Archaic Species Relic

When a species reaches the brink of extinction, from the human perspective, these species become fascinations and legends. If a Homo sapien were to have a chance encounter with a rare relic of hominin, it would most likely be a terrifying ordeal, like encountering a monster indeed. Even today we can see images of Goblin Shark online, and this bygone species of shark looks absolutely hideous in comparison to the common breeds of shark we are more familiar with. Perhaps Beowulf’s inhuman strength, and his “áglæca” designation, are reflective of his genetic ancestry, perhaps Beowulf was a hybridized descendant of archaic hominins and Homo sapiens. Perhaps Grendel was closer to a full blooded archaic hominin, like a Neanderthal, or even some other human species, like Denisovan, or Heidelbergensis, or the mysteriously forgotten Cro-Magnon.

And the Dragon?

Homo sapiens being freaked out by relics of an archaic species would not only apply to hominins, but also to megafauna, and gigantic, beastly megafauna certainly did exist. Our ancestors came into contact with all manner of these enormous and savage creatures. It not such an exercise of the imagination to suggest that as Homo sapiens expanded exponentially and spread their civilization into more and more remote areas, they would have encountered rare, ancient, relic species, which undoubtedly would have seemed monstrous. But in this way, the term “áglæca,” describes remnants of an ancient species, which tend to be monstrous to the Homo sapien. This also relieves the poet from any offense to Beowulf, because it is no insult to acknowledge Beowulf’s rare, archaic ancestry. It is not so much that Beowulf, Grendel, Modor, the dragon, Sigmunde are all “monsters,” as they are freaks of nature-in the eyes of the Homo sapien-if you will. Just as today if a modern Homo sapien were to see a Goblin Shark in an aquarium, they could apply the “áglæca” term, just as it was applied to whatever frightening relic species this “dragon” may have been.


Probably the most luminous of all the scholars to translate Beowulf was J.R.R. Tolkien. Tolkien, in his time, was apparently not pleased with the quest to discover the historical value behind the tale, instead, preferring to admire it for its literary impact. The reflective inspiration and intimate relationship between history and mythology in this mystery, bring to mind the true story of Troy, the ancient Greeks, and the great Heinrich Schliemann, the amateur archaeologist who discovered the ancient city of Troy, precisely where Homer described. And for Tolkien, perhaps… “some things that should not have been forgotten were lost. History became legend. Legend became myth.”


Beck, Andreas Mikkel. “Neanderthals could have survived in Scandinavia.” February 8th, 2016.

Gibbons, John. “Why did Neanderthals go extinct?” Smithsonian Stories. August 11, 2015.

Kuhn, S. “Old English Áglæca-Middle Irish Olach”. Linguistic Method: Essays in Honor of Herbert Penzl, pp. 216–217. (1979).  Mouton Publishers.

Longrich, Nicholas R. “Did Neanderthals go to war with our ancestors?” BBC.Com, Future. November, 2nd 2020.

The Cloud Warriors of Chachapoya: Craniums and Controversies

By Mark Andrew Carpenter


Over a thousand years ago, in the mists of the cloud forests of Northern Peru, near the source of the mighty Amazon River, the Cloud Warriors reigned supreme. Long before the emergence of the Inca State, these mysterious, shamanic warlords ruled a vast swath of the Andes before being defeated by the Inca, abandoning their great citadel, and vanishing into history. In recent decades, additional archaeological evidence has come to light from two primary sources, the fortress city known as Kuelap, and the cliff face necropolis at the Lagoon of the Condors. Because these cultures left no written records (that we’re currently aware of), the only sources of information relating to them were native, oral traditions, and documentary accounts of early European explorers, which has lead to centuries of speculation and controversy.


Rising up nearly ten-thousand feet above the Utcubamba Valley, surrounded by clouds, orchids, and epiphytes, the walled settlement of Kuelap dominates the landscape. Sometimes called the Machu Pichu of the North, Kuelap is an underrated wonder of the ancient world. The perimeter walls of the settlement are sixty feet (thirty meters) high, protecting over four-hundred circular dwelling structures which originally had thatched conical roofs, which is absolutely anomalous in Pre-Columbian architecture. There are many other features unique to Andean civilization, like the twenty-foot (seven meter) tall defensive towers from which stone spheres were used as projectiles from slings.

Lagoon of the Condors 

In 1997, about five-hundred miles to the north of Kuelap, over two-hundred mummies were discovered high in the cliffs around this remote lake. The mummies were wrapped in seated positions and sealed within individualized, anthropomorphic sarcophagi overlooking the lake, all of which is highly abnormal amongst Andean Cultures. Many of the mummies had been looted, and some had strange cranial features such as elongated skulls or holes from trepanning (a premortem cavity drilled into the skull). Kuelap also had human skulls embedded within the walls-which also displayed stone sculptures of decapitated victims.

Archaeological Yields

The two-hundred mummies discovered at the lake were astonishingly well preserved considering how humid the region is, but scientists later discovered that the caves/crags that the Cloud People modified in mausoleums are very cold and dry microclimates, perfectly suited for long term preservation. Scores of human remains, artifacts, and biological remnants were discovered at Kuelap as well, including hallucinogenic plants, sacrificial animal bones, and stone weapons. Evidence of violence and fire were discovered at Kuelap, random age and gender skeletons were discovered in scattered, open locations, suggesting they were not interred there, but rather, that they died suddenly in that spot. The two-hundred and thirty mummies are now quietly kept at the Museo Leymebamba, but the remains and artifacts from Kuelap are not being displayed, publicly studied, and their exact location is unknown.


  The Routledge Handbook of the Bioarcheology of Human Conflict quotes the European chronicler Pedro Cieza de Leon’s 1553 description of the Cloud People: “Among the Chachapoya Huayna Capac (an Incan ruler) met great resistance, so much that twice he had to make hasty retreat to the fortresses he had built for defense. But with reinforcements brought to him, he marched on the Chachapoyas once more and inflicted such a defeat on them that they sued for peace and laid down their arms. The Inca granted them favorable terms and ordered many of them to take up their residence in Cuzco, where their descendants still live; he took many of their women because they are handsome and comely and very white; he set up garrisons of mitimaes as soldiers, to guard the frontier.” This description, combined with several others, the anomalous/Old World nature of their architecture and funerary practices, have lead to many theories that the Chachapoya originated in Europe or Eurasia.

Hail to Independent Researcher #1

In 1998, German professor Dr. Hans Giffhorn journeyed to these remote cloud forests of Northern Peru in search of a rare hummingbird, but left bewildered by what he had seen: the ruins of Kuelap. In his essay “Chachapoya: Was America Discovered in Ancient Times,” Bell explains how Giffhorn reasoned that the most irrefutable hypothesis for the origin of the Chachapoya was migration from the Old World. Giffhorn identified six complex and typical cultural traditions which appeared out of nowhere, which are inadequately explained by archaeologists and which are essential to testing theories regarding the origins of Chachapoya culture. They manifest in a) Kuelap construction methods, b) trophy heads and head sculptures, c) funerary (fetal positioning and high up in inaccessible cliffs), d) unique trepanation techniques, and e) the fabrication and utilization of stone projectile slings.

Giffhorn’s Conclusions

After sixteen years of research, Giffhorn found strong evidence linking the sudden, aboriginal emergence of Chachapoya Culture to Old World Cultures that matched the previously mentioned criteria. Specifically, he reasoned that these practices mirrored Galacian, Celtiberian, and Balearic traditions. Even the casual observer can make the obvious connection between the Celtic Castros Ruins of the Spanish Islands to these ruins in Northern Peru; furthermore, the principal weapon of both cultures was the sling and stone sphere projectile. Even according to mainstream archaeologists, the sling first emerged in South America at this time and in this region, and the pattern runs much deeper, circular stone dwellings, towers, trepanation, elongated skulls, these aspects can be traced across islands of the Mediterranean and far into prehistory. But possibly the most intriguing link is the unique practice of wearing these slings tied around the head, which is practiced even today by the Majorcans (modern descendants of Celtiberians), and was found to be practiced by the Cloud Warriors who were mummified with their slings tied around their heads.

Skulls Crushed by Sling Balls in Human History

Returning to the trusty but dusty Bioarcheological Handbook of Human Conflict, a long pattern of skulls crushed by and the use of the stone projectiles is cultural phenomenon that can help us trace ancient migratory patterns. “Cilingiroglu (2005) argues that sling missiles, either of clay or stone, are found repeatedly throughout Southwest Asia, Anatolia, and Southeast Europe during the PPN (pre-pottery Neolithic), suggesting that slings were known to the Neolithic peoples around the Mediterranean.” When putting these cultural puzzle pieces together in a macro, ancient perspective, it becomes rather obvious that there was a fractured migration and assimilation of people radiating outwards from the Black/Caspian Sea/Caucus Mountain region. This culture’s footprints can be traced by the trail left behind of elongated skulls, stone slings, trepanned craniums, towers, megalithic structures, sacrificial and mummification funerary practices, but it is DNA that is the smoking gun key to unlocking exactly who these people were, unfortunately, academic and scientific authorities are desperately evading these analyses because to bring them to light would be catastrophic to the human history narrative they have been peddling for the past two centuries.

Celts and Gauls    

Who were these Mediterranean island dwellers with such similar culture? Ancient Greek historians like Strabo and Diodorus Siculus in his Bibliotheca Historica volume eighteen book six chapter five, have some interesting reports about the Balearic Island inhabitants. They tell that the inhabitants would live naked or clad only in sheepskins until they were colonized by the Phoenicians, who admired their legendary skill with the sling and employed them as mercenaries. They also tell of how they used to live in artificial caves and hollow rocks, they were insatiably lusty, and had very peculiar marriage and funerary customs compared to those of the Hellenistic observer. The etymology of the Celts and Gauls is suspected by scholars to have Proto-Celtic tribal roots- galno which in Old Irish means power, ferocity, or strength, although linguist Patrizia De Bernardo Stempel believes this term to be coined by the Greeks and translates as the tall ones.

Independent Researcher #2 

Is there any other evidence to corroborate Giffhorn’s theory? Independent researcher Brien Forester (who deserves a metal for striving to genetically analyze skeletons of the Paracas Culture), has uncovered genetic evidence that links the ancient inhabitants of Southern Peru (who had elongated skulls, auburn hair, practiced trepanation, and were wiped out) to Eurasia. In his book Beyond the Black Sea: The Mysterious Paracas of Peru, Forester has successfully identified traces of DNA haplogroups and blood types that should not exist according to the mainstream human history narrative. If the conventional narrative were accurate, the genes of ancient South Americans should be relatively monolithic and so should their blood types (meaning haplogroups A-D, mostly B, and blood type O) ; however, Forester has discovered the strong presence of haplogroups H, U, and R along with several other discoveries that challenge the narrative and strongly suggest a migration from another part of the world.

The Bearded Viracochas

  He also points out that when Francisco Pizzaro who these pale skinned, red haired people were, the Inca replied that they were the last descendants of Viracocha (a fair skinned, bearded Incan deity/demi-god). “The Viracochas, they said, were a race of divine white men with beards. They were so like the Spanish that the Europeans were called Viracochas the moment they came to the Inca Empire. The Inca supposedly thought that they were the Viracochas who had come sailing back.” A similar instance allegedly occurred between the Aztecs, Hernan Cortes, and their belief that hey was Quetzalcoatl (another or possibly the same fair skinned, bearded Mesoamerican deity) returning from across the sea.

Father Crespi’s Collection   

Not too far north of the Chachapoya stronghold, in an Ecuadorian government bank vault, are curious artifacts that were the vast collection of Salesian monk known as Father Crespi. In short, Father Carlos Crespi Coci was an Italian monk/missionary who accumulated great favor with local Ecuadorian tribes due to his endless warmth and generosity, and to repay him for his kindness, the natives began presenting him with strange relics allegedly from a great hoard hidden away in a remote cave. Father Crespi correctly identified some of the iconography to be of Mesopotamian origin, but upon his death, the Ecuadorian government swooped in an acquired his collection only to squirl it away in bank vault where it remains to this day gathering dust and not being studied. 

Manuscript (No. 512)

Legendary explorer Percy Fawcett who vanished in 1925 searching for lost cities in the Amazon, discovered an intriguing document in the Rio de Janeiro library archives in 1920. The document included the 1743 report of a Portuguese expedition who had came upon a massive stone city near where the Amazon Jungle meets the Andean Mountains (the Chachapoya region), and the lost city had inscriptions in the stone that were explicitly described and decades later were observed to resemble Celtic Ogham, an extinct Irish language. The expedition also reported being followed by “white Indians” and when Fawcett himself explored the area, he also documented the sparce presence of fair skinned, red or blonde haired tribal people.

Curious and Contradictory Remarks of the Authorities

Dr. Sonia Guillen is the leading authority on Peruvian mummies and the director of the Museo Leymebamba which houses the collection of Chachapoya mummies. In 2017, in an interview with an Egyptian mummy expert, Guillen was asked about genetic testing of the mummies, to which she expressed that it was “ongoing” and that it was difficult to obtain “scientifically sound” genetic material from the mummies. This is a valid point, the public commonly believes that it’s a simple matter of sending of material and awaiting results (it’s not), but shortly after this remark, Guillen states that scientifically sound material has been harvested from “most” of the mummies. She then concludes with an extremely odd statement “then we have the problem of what do we compare them to?” These mummies should archaeological super stars, at least a couple dozen of them should be touring the planet to the amazement of the public and delight of scientists worldwide, but instead, no genetic results have ever been published, and this final statement about comparisons… the only possibility for comparison is of course the compendium of all human genetic data-GenBank. It almost seems like Guillen is accidentally or deliberately revealing that there’s something genetically anomalous about these mummies which defies comparison.    


Chiara Barbieri, José R. Sandoval, Jairo Valqui, Aviva Shimelman, Stefan Ziemendorff, Roland Schröder, Maria Geppert, Lutz Roewer, Russell Gray, Mark Stoneking, Ricardo Fujita, Paul Heggarty. “Enclaves of genetic diversity resisted Inca impacts on population history” Scientific Reports, 2017; 7 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-17728-w

Church, Warren B. “Chachapoya Indians” In Andean Past p469-77,Cornell University, 1994.

McDonnell, Patrick J. “Clues from the Mists of Time” Los Angeles Times, World & Nation, September 16, 2014.

Romany, Ramy. Mummies Unwrapped. Season One, Episode Three. The Cursed Mummy Tribe. Discovery Channel (2018).


By Mark A. Carpenter


At the southwestern tip of Eurasia, the geological cul-de-sac known as the Iberian Peninsula resides. With the majestic Pyrenees Mountains to the north, and the Pillars of Herakles (the Straight of Gibraltar) to the south, this peninsula contains a piece of France and all of both Spain and Portugal. It also contains one of the highest concentrations of hominid sites on the planet. These are mostly Neanderthal sites dating back over ten-thousand years. Clustered in almost perfect correlation to these sites is another ancient concentration, a trove of dolmens. These hominid sites and enigmatic megaliths are wellsprings of both scientific enlightenment and mythological beauty, emanating data and lore respectively. Perhaps by reconciling these seemingly opposed paradigms, fresh clues to human origins can be discovered and pierce through the dense fog of cultural biases and taboos that cloud understanding.

The Hungry Hominids of Hiberia: Axlor

Sprinkled all over the cave systems the peninsula, scientists are uncovering early man sites which over the past two decades, have yielded revolutionary data. Axlor is a Neanderthal site within the community of Dima, Biscay, a village of the Autonomous Basque region. The site dates back over forty-thousand years old and was instrumental in the shifting view regarding the primitive nature of Neanderthals. The hominid occupation in this area was so intense for so long, that it enabled scientists to construct sophisticated timelines and usage patterns, and what they found changed their perception of the entire human subspecies. They were able to determine that these Neanderthals successfully executed long-range hunting strategies over time, which enabled them to combat the radical climatic/environmental shifts that they endured. This flew in the face of decades of assumptions that regarded the Neanderthal as dumb brutes with limited cognitive abilities. Basically, these Neanderthals practiced resource management and did so with great success for thousands of years, beyond that, the game they hunted were extremely dangerous and difficult to kill, which further indicates complex, coordinated strategies for survival.

The Hungry Hominids of Hiberia:  Cova Forada

Cova Forada is another noteworthy cave and Neanderthal site, it is located within the Spanish Province of Valencia, near the Mediterranean Coast. This site has yielded three major discoveries and is also exceptional due to the extreme ancient dates which go far back into the Middle Paleolithic (over one-hundred-thousand years ago). One of the most complete Neanderthal skeletons ever unearthed came from this site, with many bones still connected to the spinal column which is extremely rare and scientifically valuable. Just recently, the cave gave up yet another clue, in the form of a very ancient necklace. The necklace is almost exclusively made of eagle claws, which were not much of a food source for these Neanderthals, and this points to some degree of symbolic significance, much like the numerous nations today that use the eagle as a symbol of supreme power.

The Hungry Hominids of Hiberia:Cova Negra

Also inside the Province of Valencia, near the village of Xativa, is another Neanderthal cave known as Cova Negra. This site is also incredibly old with sporadic occupation dating back to the Middle Paleolithic. This site is unique due to the great quantities of fast, small game animals that were processed and consumed here, especially birds. Neanderthals typically hunted big game, in fact, some of the biggest most dangerous game imaginable. But here, and in a few other caves nearby, they stalked, killed, butchered, and ate, eighteen different species of birds, most common were doves and crows. Another interesting note on Cova Negra is that of the seven different Neanderthals found in the cave, six were children and one was an adolescent.

The Hungry Hominids of Hiberia: Bolomor Cave

Here is another Valencian Province site, Bolomor Cave near Tavernes de la Valldigna,at which very ancient, hominid remains have been discovered with significant implications. Four different Neanderthal individuals’ remains were found, but the remarkable aspect of this site is that sections of it date back three-hundred-and-fifty-thousand years and there are tool construction distinctions that stick out as well. The common knapping method (a technique of chipping away edges of a stone until the core emerges intact) was not used much and this leads to the suggestion that perhaps this marked some degree of technological transition. There are also very many hearths that are being investigated, some of which are lined with stone and date back as far as two-hundred-and-fifty-thousand years. Maybe the most baffling find was that throughout the entirety of the occupation, young elephants were hunted and eaten, but what is hard to imagine, is that these elephant carcasses (along with many heavy ungulates) were hauled up to the cave by hand. The cave isn’t easy to access carrying nothing at all. It is a very steep slope one-hundred meters (three-hundred-and-thirty feet) up a cliff face. Even at the estimated six times greater than Homo sapien strength, this is still a Herculean effort to carry a deceased young elephant up to this cave.

The Hungry Hominids of Hiberia: Sidron Cave

This Neanderthal cave was stumbled onto in 1994, it is located in Northwestern Spain within the Pilona municipality of Asturias. Around thirteen Neanderthal remains were found alongside fifty-three stone tools and a wonderous gallery of petroglyphs. There are very few non hominid bones in the enormous cave system, and all of them were deliberately piled into a small chamber. Upon closer examination and thorough analysis of the bones, a grisly reality came to light. The bones clearly displayed unmistakable evidence of cannibalism. The forensic anthropologists identified “the presence of cut marks, flakes, percussion pitting, conchoidal scars, and adhering flakes.” Of all the fruits of knowledge plucked from this tree, maybe the most intriguing are the genetic anomalies and revelations. For starters, the “FOXP2” gene was discovered, and it is this genetic marker that geneticists identify with language in modern humans. This is a direct implication that the Neanderthals had speech and therefore, elaborate communication, which again, refutes prior assumptions about the primitive capabilities of hominids. But the royal gemstone, so to speak, is the first ever complete sequencing of the Neanderthal Y chromosome.

The Sidron Cave Archaeogenetic Anomalies

This successful sequencing of the Neanderthal Y chromosome raised more questions than answers. Allegedly, based on the precarious interpretation of this single specimen, scientists proclaimed that it indicates Neanderthals diverged from a common, human ancestor around five-hundred-and-ninety-thousand years ago. But a yellow flag of interpretive caution needs to go up here because of the additional anomalies, like the fact that this chromosome is passed down exclusively by the father, and the fact that no other hominid or hominin has ever yielded this chromosome to date, and most of all, due to the fact that this Y chromosome has never been identified in modern humans and is encoded with a variety of MiHA (minor histocompatibility antigens) that diverge from those of modern humans. What exactly this things are and what this all means goes far beyond the scope of this article, but suffice it to say, it is rather strange and does not add up with current preconceptions regarding Neanderthals, their alleged African origins, or their relationship with Homo sapiens.

Defining Dolmens

What is a dolmen? A dolmen (also known as a cromlech) is an ancient, megalithic structure normally composed of two or more huge vertical stones which support a single, very huge, often flat stone. In some cases, additional smaller stones or mounds of earth cover the entire structure which is then classified as a tumulus. The conventional definition asserts that most date from the Early Neolithic Period: three-thousand to four-thousand BCE, and that entombment was the original function that they served. However, the reality is, that these structures are a great archaeological mystery. There are very few if any peer reviewed, scholarly reports of dolmen excavation that has yielded definitive evidence as to who built these structures, how, when, and for what purpose. Compounding the mystery is the fact that they exist all over the planet, with the highest concentration being in Korea which contains an unbelievable quantity of over thirty-thousand structures. Western Europe (France, Spain, and the UK) then the Levant are distant runners up to the Korean concentration of dolmens, which may itself provide a clue.

The Hominid Dolmen Concentration Correlation 

The silver metal for dolmen concentration goes to France, and to be more specific South Western France which leads into the Iberian Peninsula. This region of France is gold metal winner for another contest, and that would be the highest concentration of Neanderthal sites on the planet. This correlation continues into the Iberian Peninsula where the greatest concentrations of Neanderthal sites are in the Pyrenees, a stones throw from the dense concentration of dolmens in Southern France and the southwest coast of Portugal, which likewise, is in snug proximity to the dense concentration of previously mentioned trove of Iberian dolmens. Could it be that the Neanderthals, who possessed strength enough to carry young elephants up a cliff, also had strength enough to erect these giant structures? Que the tar, feathers, boiling oil, and angry mob of anthropological conformists, but despite their vitriol, the simple fact remains that stone cannot be carbon dated (in reference to the seeming temporal distance between Neanderthals and dolmens), and furthermore, there is no direct, published, archaeological evidence that identifies the builders of these structures.

Also, the perception of Neanderthals is shifting rapidly towards greater capabilities and recentness of existence, which is in stark contrast to all of the original hominid dogma that still persists in the minds of the public. But then again, that may be the entire point. In other words, it could be that there has been excavations conducted, reports generated, plus remains and artifacts exhumed that the public is not aware of. Certainly, there are many peculiar reports from the US (late nineteenth/early twentieth century) revolving around burial mound excavation and the unique physical traits of the skeletons (which now cannot be located).

The Dolmens of Hiberia: Antequera   

There are hundreds of dolmens bejeweling the Iberian Peninsula, but several standout due to their astronomical/geographical orientations, their incredible proportions, and their potential links to the Paleolithic Era. The Dolmen of Menga, in Southern Spain near Andalusia, represents one of the most significant masterpieces of megalithic construction based on its post-and-lintel structure with an earthen covering, notable for its enormous dimensions that push the size possible in a corridor sepulcher by utilizing the unprecedented solution of intermediate pillars; additionally, Tholos of El Romeral (different dolmens same site) complements the two dolmens with its corridor and false dome of drystone masonry. Both the Dolmen of Menga and the Tholos of El Romeral have anomalous orientations.

The archaeoastronomer Michael Hoskin, who analyzed the site, noted that, the Dolmen of Menga aligns towards the close peak known as the Peña de los Enamorados (interestingly, this mountain is also known as Montaña del Indio because it resembles the head of a Native American). This strange, lonesome mountain rises abruptly from the plain and contains the contemporaneous rock shelter of Matacabras, in which cave paintings are found. A similar orientation exists regarding the dolmen Tholos of El Romeral, which is oriented to the mountains of El Torcal, which likewise contains the Cave of the Bull (another rock art and early man site), and is also aligned towards the noon sun on the winter solstice. El Torcal is remarkable for the extensive, otherworldly karst landscape at its summit. On top of all this, the Tholos of El Romeral dolmen is positioned along an axis from the Dolmen of Menga to the Peña de los Enamorados. Therefore, the Dolmens of Antequera constitute a genius, stylized, and artificial landscape in an intertwined, symbiotic relationship with the surrounding natural formations and the stars.

The Devil’s Tower

At the southern most tip of the peninsula, at the edge of the Straight of Gibraltar, rests the ruins of the Devil’s Tower. The name refers to an ancient stone watchtower, which was suspiciously destroyed in a deliberate act around nineteen-forty, allegedly because the tower was obstructing the line of fire for surface to air guns of WWII. This was ordered by General Sir Noel Mason-Macfarlane as Gibraltar was then, and is now, technically, a British Overseas Territory. Digressing for a moment, it should be noted that such ancient watchtowers, with identical dry masonry construction, exist at other anomalous megalithic sites around the globe, like Kulap in Peru, Malta and Sardinia in the Mediterranean, plus in the Four Corners Region of the Southwestern US. Also during the war, the British Military deliberately tampered with archaeological sites on Malta, and Malta Heritage claims it was at this point they somehow “lost” tens-of-thousands of enigmatic human remains from the subterranean chambers beneath the island.

Returning to Devil’s Tower

Back to the Iberian site, in extreme close proximity to this ancient watchtower is a Paleolithic rock shelter within which a Neanderthal skull was discovered in nineteen-twenty-six by archaeologist Dorothy Garrod. This was the second such Neanderthal skull discovered in Gibraltar, was near a cache of stone tools, and is now known as Gibraltar Two or the Devil’s Tower Child. British authorities adamantly claim that the tower and the Paleolithic site were/are unrelated, which is convenient for their narrative seeing that they intentionally destroyed the tower, which could not possibly have been an obstruction for a mobile gun turret.

The ‘Myth’ of the Jentilak

The Jentilak (plural form of Jentil) were, according to Basque mythology of the Pyrenees region, a vanished race of hairy giants who were responsible for the erection of dolmens. The tradition holds that the Jentilak coexisted with the Basque people and even taught them the arts of metallurgy and agriculture. While the Homo sapien Basque people lived in the river valleys and on the coast, the (archaic) Jentilak lived high in the mountains in caves. Although they were said to have coexisted peacefully to some extant, they were also generally regarded as hostile, unruly, and dangerous. They were said to have tremendous physical strength, able to throw boulders from one mountain to the next and had competitions of stone throwing which are carried on to this day by modern Basque people. The tradition concludes that the Jentilak, unwilling to progress or coexist any longer, retreated, through the dolmens, into the subterranean realm.


It absolutely could be that the so called myth of the Jentilak, the high concentration of dolmens, and the dense clusters of Neanderthal sites, are all remnants and memories of the same Paleolithic Culture. How can it be that there is so little archaeology to speak of regarding these structures that exist all over the planet? Which leads to yet another question, regardless of new or old stone age, four or forty-thousand years ago, why were ancient humans so universally compelled to build these structures?


Dorothy A.E. Garrod; L.H. Dudley Buxton; G. Elliot Smith; Dorothea M.A. Bate; R.C. Spiller; M.A.C. Hinton; Paul Fischer (1928). “Excavation of a Mousterian Rock-shelter at Devil’s Tower, Gibraltar”. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland.

Hoskin, Michael.  (15 July 2016). “The Dolmens of Antequera”. Diario Sur (in Spanish). Retrieved August 24, 2021.

Jensen Jr., John. Earth Epochs: Cataclysms across the Holocene. p. 276. 2015.

Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Rosas, Antonio; Rasilla, Marco de la (2012). “Palaeogenetic research at the El Sidrón Neanderthal site”. Annals of Anatomy – Anatomischer Anzeiger. 194 (1): 133–137.

Lewis, S. Guide to the Menhirs and other Megaliths of Central Brittany. Nezert Books, 2009.

Locker, Martin. “The Mythology of Giants in the Pyrenees.” Perennial Pyrenees. September 19, 2018.

Roach, John. “Neandertals’ Last Stand Was in Gibraltar, Study Suggests.” National Geographic News. National Geographic Society. September 13, 2006.

Archaic Easter Island: Cults, Cannibals, and Cultural Connections

By Mark A. Carpenter


Two-thousand-and-two-hundred miles (3,500 km) west beyond the coast of Chile, in the dark blue belly of the southeastern Pacific Ocean, hides Easter Island. A slightly more appropriate name of this most mysterious island is its current, Polynesian name: Rapa Nui. Even more apt is its original name: Te pito o te Kainga a Hau Maka, which means “The Navel of the World.” This remote island rests atop the Nazca Plate which makes it a hot-spot for volcanic/tectonic activity demonstrated by the presence of its extinct, coalesced volcanoes, crater lakes, along with a complex maze of volcanic caves and tubes beneath its surface. Extremely remote islands that were inhabited in ancient times can be wonderful for those seeking to decipher human history because they often serve as time capsules, preserving anthropological and archaeological treasures. Once unlocked, this particular time capsule reveals an ominous picture of conflicting cults and cannibalism, both with curious cross-cultural connections.

Mainstream Myths and Moai Malarkey

While there is absolutely no academic consensus among scholars regarding the settling and origins of human activity on the island, the most widely accepted narrative is that at some point between 300 CE and 1200 CE, Polynesian settlers arrived after voyaging from either the Marquesas Islands or the Gambier Islands. After settling the island, they split into two distinct, rival confederations around 1500 CE. Both confederations were based on lineage and over these centuries engaged in the construction of platform temples, roads, and the colossal/enigmatic Moai statues. The best guess of the alleged experts is that these intensive construction projects devoured much of the island’s natural resources specifically the trees, which they believe, were driven into extinction by constant harvesting to provide rollers and cordage utilized in the maniacal megalithic projects. Then, according to the tale, shortly after the arrival of European explorers around 1720 CE, all hell broke loose and the two clans engaged in a civil war, toppling the sacred statues, engulfing the island in famine and chaos. This second wave of misfortune is beyond any doubt; however, the more ancient history of the island, although frequently presented as relative fact, is at odds with native oral traditions and many archaeological oddities.  

Modern Mayhem

All scholarly speculation aside, the islanders were certainly ravaged from the mid nineteenth century CE to the late nineteenth century CE. European capitalists and colonists abducted or coerced nearly half the population to serve as slave labor, mostly in Peru, to toil in booming industries like sugar cane or rubber plantations. The islanders who managed to escape this horror were victimized by another: smallpox. This disease swept through the population being transmitted by the European capitalists and the few islanders who somehow found their way home after their ordeal. It is estimated that in this time period the population dropped by ninety-four percent, plummeting from several thousand to only a few hundred. It is primarily this period of death and devastation that has buried the ancient history of the Rapanui even deeper under layers of time now topped with confusion. So for the sake of clarity, there seems to have been multiple collapses, the first is related to the competing factions on the island and lead to the sudden halting of Moai construction, the second more recent being havoc wreaking by the capitalistic navigators.  

The Chronicles of Jacob Roggeveen

On Easter Sunday April 5th, 1722, Dutch navigator Jacob Roggeveen arrived ashore, marking the first recorded contact between Europeans and the islanders. According to the chronicles of Roggeveen he and his crew witnessed gigantic, fair-skinned inhabitants, with long, drooping ears, red hair, covered in tattoos and body paint, who were engaged in some form of worship or veneration of the enormous stone statues. “Thus far my narratives will gain credit, because it contains nothing uncommon, yet I must declare that these savages are of more than gigantic size, for the men being twice as tall and thick as the largest of our people; they measured, one with the other, the height of twelve feet (3.7 meters), so that we could easily—who will not wonder without stooping, have passed between the legs of these sons of GOLIATH. According to their height, so is their thickness, and are all, now with another, very well proportioned, so that each could have passed for a HERCULES; but none of their wives came up to the height of the men, being commonly not above ten or eleven feet (3 or 3.4 meters). The men had their bodies painted with a red or dark brown, and the women with a scarlet color. I doubt not but most people who read this voyage will give no credit to what I now relate, and that this account of the height of these giants will probably pass with them for a mere fable or fiction; but this I declare, that I have put down nothing but real truth, and that this people, upon the nicest inspection, were in fact of such a surpassing height as I have here described.”  

Additional Anomalous Accounts

Another collection of very strange accounts comes from 1864 CE documented by the missionary Eugene Eyraud who recorded that the inhabitants were not remotely dependent on the ocean, but rather expert farmers and he also made note that the ruling class of this rigid caste system was genetically distinct. “These savages are tall, strong and well built. Their features resemble far more European type than those of the other islanders of Oceania.” Eugene Eyraud was also responsible for the discovery of the already then lost Rongorongo tablets which contain this mysterious, and still enciphered language. Eyraud also acquired some of the extremely rare wooden statues that can now be found in various European museums which depict men with elongated head, long drooping ears, angular faces with high cheek bones, disproportionately large eyes, and curious protuberances along their spinal column.

Returning to Roggeveen, additional details about the traits of the “long-ears,” (as they were known by the other, certainly Polynesian inhabitants) “Their ears were so long that they hung down as far as to the shoulders. What the form of worship of these people comprises we were not able to gather any full knowledge of, owing to the shortness of our stay among them; we noticed only that they kindle fire in front of certain remarkably tall stone figures they had set up; and, thereafter squatting on their heels with heads bowed down, they bring the palms of their hands together and alternately raise and lower them.” The Dutch explorers also made specific note that the other inhabitants of the island did not practice this ceremonial veneration of the Moai, only these genetically odd islanders.

Cannibalism and Cognitive Dissonance

Upon entering the realm of the great taboo, its worth disclaiming that cognitive dissonance runs amok within the archaeological/anthropological communities. Apparently, the ancient practice of cannibalism is so abhorrent to many of them, they loose all objectivity and descend into delusion, preferring to deny that practices like ritual human sacrifice and cannibalism actually occurred. But they most certainly did, the native oral traditions are awash with tales of cannibalism and Norwegian explorer and ethnologist Thos Heyerdahl (who was the first to conduct excavations on the island) swiftly determined that human remains excavated from the Ahu Nauna site (a Moai platform temple) yielded charred human bones with joint cut marks indicating clear evidence of human sacrifice/ritualistic cannibalism. An account from the 1800s CE reinforces this as well, recorded by Father Gaspard Zumbohm is the native recollection that this now lost, genetically unique high priesthood used to eat children as part of their worship of their deity Makemake.

Cannibalism, Confusion, and Contradiction  

Many modern academics are attempting to downplay or outright deny the evidence of civil turmoil and ritual cannibalism of island’s ancient history, but these class conflicts and cannibalistic activities are not only testified to by the oral traditions, but also the textual and archaeological evidence. In 2005, Rapa Nui expert, scholar, and author Shawn McLaughlin compiled an exquisite essay on the issue entitled Cannibalism and Easter Island: Evaluation, Discussion of Probabilities, and Survey of the Literature on the Subject. McLaughlin takes an extremely objective and prudent position as a surveyor, but within this essay is a trove of both hard and circumstantial evidence combined with justifiable accusations towards denier scholars of emotionally motivated biases that desperately seek to deny what all the evidence is screaming. In other words, despite McLaughlin’s neutrality, his essay definitively proves ritual cannibalism occurred on Easter Island. “Lee (American archaeologist Dr. Georgia Lee) goes on to cite Patrick Kirch’s Evolution of Polynesian Chiefdoms in which evidence for cannibalism is supported by the proliferation of obsidian spear points (“mata’a” on Easter Island) – a phenomenon also noted by Peter Baker (1993), dating from times of conflict – as well as cut marks found on human bones characteristic of how people remove flesh from animal bones.”

The Case for Cannibalism Continued

Although there is an ever growing narrative that attempts to portray Easter Island’s prehistory as devoid of conflict and cannibalism many objective archaeological studies indicate otherwise and can all be found in McLaughlin’s brilliant survey. “Amongst the most distinctive scientific analyses supporting cannibalism on the island comes from Arne Skjolsvold’s Archaeological Investigations at Anakena, Easter Island (1994). In it he relates how, in a trench dug during excavations at Ahu Nau Nau, [another Moai platform temple] fire-damaged bones ‘found together with bones ofedible prey indicates cannibalistic activity. Sljolsvold also concludes that ‘cannibalism had connections with the activities of the ahu [Moai platform temples.’” As recently as 2001 CE, human child remains were discovered which display evidence of cannibalism. “In evaluating human remains found at Ahu O Rongo [another Moai platform temple] in 2001, Polet [Dr. Caroline Polet Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences 2003] reports cut marks on the ulna of a 10-year-old. ‘These cut marks,’ Polet says, ‘suggest that the corpse was defleshed with asharp object prior to cremation and interment.’”

Cults and Comparative Mythology

The religion on the island revolved around this deity Makemake who can be found depicted in glyphs exclusively in the subterranean cavities of the island (like the cave Ana Kai Tangata – The Place Where Men are Eaten). His is an otherworldly appearance with round head, large eyes, and he often has anthropomorphic/aviary features. Some experts suggest this deity is unknown to Polynesian belief systems while others equate him with the Polynesian deity Tane. This is an understandable comparison because both deities were believed to be creators and closely associated with fertility, plant life, and agriculture. Tane’s mythology is interesting in that his most famous mythological deeds were the separation of his united Earth Mother and Sky Father, and his descent into the underworld. What’s so interesting about this, within the context of chthonic (relating to the underworld) mythology and human/child sacrifice, is that these beliefs and practices ring familiar across a wide range of prehistoric cultures.

Saturn for example, was of course, the Greco Roman deity heavily associated with the nether realm and infanticide who was notorious for the castration of his Sky Father – Uranus, and subjugation of his Earth Mother – Gaia. Saturn/Cronus has been soundly equated with the Egyptian deity of the Earth and fertility Geb, who was also depicted with aviary features. There are many more mythological/prehistoric parallels like the Tengu beings of Japan, the megaliths, human sacrifices, and giants of Malta, the Redhorn figure of Native American beliefs who had long-drooping ears and wore red body paint. But the most striking of all, are connections to the Pre-Columbian traditions of Peru, regarding the possibly fair-skinned, bearded creator, bestower of agriculture, megalithic builder – Viracocha. This connection runs far too deep to even address, but suffice it to say, that there are archaeological links between ancient Peru and Mesoamerica that have been noted by a variety of experts.


It can be concluded with objective reason and relative certainty that there were two distinct ethnic groups on the island in prehistoric times, one that was Polynesian and one that remains a mystery, but who seems to have cultural connections and genetic traits linking them with the Old World. It can be stated that there is substantial evidence of ritualistic cannibalism and human sacrifice occurring. It can also be concluded that many of the modern archaeological and anthropological studies on the island’s history are tainted by confirmation bias and cognitive dissonance, so beware that there is a popular faction publishing narratives that masquerade as objective science, or even worse, as factual, but are, in reality, ironically mythological. It is fair to question why the Rongorongo lexicon has yet to be deciphered when there is ample academic interest and scholarly expertise to do so. Genetic testing and thorough laboratory analyses of the human remains discovered would solve many mysteries and would cascade blinding light onto this chapter of human history, but suspiciously, UNESCO policies and private, non-native landowners are preventing any possibility of such analyses.

While these “long eared” ones may remain a mystery in terms of their bones and or DNA, the nephilim reflection could not be any clearer. Here we have Enoch 7 objectively vindicated in the archaeological and anthropological record. In the archaeological record, we find the evidence for this conflict, virtually identical to the archaeological site Lovelock Cave in ancient Neveda. Paiute tradition and artifacts from the cave reveal a conflict between giant, red-haired, cave dwelling cannibals, and Native, Homo sapiens. Both conflicts ended with the giants trapped in caves, where the Natives used fire to vanquish them.

In all these regions of the world, we contemplate, compare & contrast curious correlations of cross cultural connections converging on the Biblical Nephilim tradition. Ritual cannibalism, enigmatic megaliths, geological wonders, anotomically abnormal ruling elite, and ultimately, their conflict with, and defeat by, the Homo sapiens who outnumbered them. Behold! Nephilim descendants lived then, and live now, hidden on the fringes of the wilderness, lurking at the precipice crossroads of the surface world and the neatherworld below.


Flenley, John. Bahn, Paul G. The Enigmas of Easter Island: Island on the Edge, Oxford University Press, 2003, pp.76; 154.

Heyerdahl, Thor. Aku-Aku: The Secret of Easter Island. Rand McNally. (1958).

Heyerdahl, Thor. Easter Island: The Mystery Solved. (1989). Pp. 208, 114, 68. Random House New York, New York.  

Lee, G. (1992). Rock Art of Easter Island: Symbols of Power, Prayers to the Gods. Monumenta Archaeologica; 17 Mathematics; 143. Institute of Archaeology, University of California, Los Angeles. p. 187. ISBN 978-0-917956-74-4. Retrieved 2019-07-23.

McLaughlin, Shawn. (2005). “Cannibalism and Easter Island: Evaluation, Discussion of Probabilities, and Survey of the Literature on the Subject,” Rapa Nui Journal: Journal of the Easter Island Foundation: Vol. 19 : Iss. 1 , Article 6. Available at:


By Mark Andrew Carpenter

Landscape Overlook

In the last decade or so, controversies and wild speculations have swirled online around Grand Canyon National Park and a newspaper article published by the Arizona Gazette on April, 5th 1909. The headlines read:  “EXPLORATIONS IN THE GRAND CANYON/ Mysteries of Immense Rich Cavern Being Brought to Light./ JORDAN IS ENTHUSED/ Remarkable Finds Indicate Ancient People Migrated From Orient”(1).            The article explains that an explorer named G. E. Kincaid had made the initial discovery and was joined by the Smithsonian scientist S. A. Jordan to study what was described as a wonderous labyrinthian honeycomb of man made tunnels filled with seemingly Eastern treasures of golden urns, sophisticated copper tools, ancient artifacts, hieroglyphs, mummified remains, and statues whose iconography resembled Hindu and or Egyptian. “If their theories are born out by the tablets engraved with hieroglyphics, the mystery of the prehistoric peoples of North America, their ancient arts, who they were and whence they came, will be solved. Egypt and the Nile, and Arizona and the Colorado will be linked by a historical chain running back to ages which will stagger the wildest fancy of the fictionist”(1).

            Modern day skeptical writers, academics, and the Smithsonian claim that this story is simply a piece of sensational yellow journalism. They insist it is a pure fabrication from top to bottom that preys on the spiritual yearnings of a gullible and superstitious public. On its surface, the article does appear improbable at best and at worst, a dishonest printing of fanciful tales to conjure up profits. The original author of the piece is anonymous which does a disservice to either the believer and the sceptic camps, and there never was a follow up article. The Smithsonian has publicly denied the story outright (over a hundred years later) and denied any records verifying the existence of Kincaid or Professor Jordan. “The story also asserts that a Smithsonian archaeologist named S. A. Jordan returned with Kincaid to investigate the site. However, the Arizona Gazette appears to have been the only newspaper ever to have published the story. No records can confirm the existence of either Kincaid or Jordan”(2). Naturally, the academic community toes the party line without question.

            Alternative researchers clamor online, insisting this is an elaborate cover-up. They claim that there does exist a “forbidden zone” within Grand Canyon National Park which completely forbids anyone to hike, camp, or explore there. They also point to the curious names of the landmarks in this allegedly off-limits area, and they even go so far as to suggest that shadowy branches of the Federal Government secretly monitor the entire area. In the more extremist alternative factions, this is only the tip of the proverbial iceberg as they expand the scope into a complex conspiracy of subterranean reptilian overlords that manipulate the ruling elite class. The skeptical position is heavily fortified behind obtuse walls of authority and plausibility, easily defended against one lonesome article published over a century ago.

The objective researcher is justified in questioning the credibility of a newspaper and an anonymous author, but on the reverse side of that same token, this same researcher would be naïve to blindly accept the mainstream narrative presented by a government institution that absolutely does have a conflict of interest regarding the manipulation of the human history narrative; especially when it comes to the U.S. Government and the elevation of indigenous cultures in the early twentieth century. So what is the reality, whose word is to be believed? As with any mystery, the skeleton key to unlocking it is objective reasoning, the suspension of any preconceived notions, and sailing upon the winds of evidence, avoiding the inevitable rocks and sandbars of confirmation bias, formal, and informal fallacy.

Landmarks and Limitations

            It is an undisputed scientific fact that there does exist a large grouping of promontories with curious names in the park. The high points/summits are in the Haunted Canyon and Trinity Creek area of the park and include geological formations like Osiris, Isis, Shiva and Horus Temples, the Tower of Set, and the Pyramids of Ra and Cheops, all legendary figures of ancient Egypt and India respectively. It is also worth noting that who was responsible for and when exactly these landmarks were given these names remains elusive to research; however, it must have occurred well before the printing of the 1909 article and the most likely suspect would be General John Wesley Powell who lead the first government-funded passage through the Grand Canyon during his 1869 Powell Geographic Expedition (3). Powell was also the first director of the Smithsonian’s Bureau of Ethnology, a founding member of the National Geographic Society, and a member of the Cosmos Club. Apparently, Powell’s expedition experienced a series of disasters during their expedition and this resulted in many of his notes being lost, but it is reasonable to conclude that it was he who gave these names to these landmarks, curious choices indeed.

            Perhaps it was the case, and the anonymous author of the news article in 1909 decided to capitalize on these names and sensationalize them. But this palatable theory quickly becomes inedible when confronted with the next step in research which validates the claim that this very section of the park is forbidden to explore. Predictably, the official document regarding the restricted areas of the park is lengthy and painful to read, but some relevant language does lie therein, “The following geographical areas and/or roads within Grand Canyon National Park are closed to public use or are restricted by specific activities and/or specific times for specific activities: Hopi Fire Tower and Access Road, Maricopa Point Endangered Plant Area, Hopi Salt Mines, extending from river mile 62 to river mile 62.5 on the southeast side of the Colorado River (precisely where the aforementioned landmarks are located), Hance mine South of Hance Rapid, Furnace Flats from 71.0 to mile 71.3 on the north side of the Colorado River, and the Anasazi Bridge”(4).

            It’s important to keep in mind that these “mines” are not active mining operations and may never have been mines at all, but are in fact, ancient man made tunnels, allegedly made by the Hopi as their names would suggest, and that is in it of itself interesting. The monotonous text goes on to discreetly command that nobody is permitted to enter any cave or “mine” at the park at anytime, ever, without a permit, which they will never be granted. “In addition, artificial anthropogenic features (i.e., mine works) which comprise a twilight zone and a zone of perpetual darkness will be managed as caves… ‘as per the (Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988)’ Permits required to satisfy this section may be applied for and/or obtained Backcountry Permits Office”(4).

            As if these restricted areas were not suspicious enough, legislation was passed in 1987 that restricts the airspace over the canyon along with only two other National Parks-Yosemite and Haleakala, supposedly to “provide for substantial restoration of the natural quiet and experience of the park and protection of public health and safety from adverse effects associated with aircraft overflight”(5). What on earth are they blathering about here? Restoration of natural quiet, the experience of the park, and the protection of public health and safety? How does an airplane flying thousands of feet above the canyon incur adverse effects on public health/safety? And if noise is a legitimate issue (doubtful), then why is it that they are not concerned with noise pollution at the other four-hundred and eighteen National Parks, only these three? These three parks have something other elements in common as well, they’re all sites of primordial geologic upheaval, volcanic remnants, karst earth deposits, vast, unexplored cave systems, and native lore that revolves around lost races of hominins, demi-gods, and deities responsible for creation.

Other Enigmatic Leavings Nearby the Forbidden Zone?

            Is there any other evidence of some lost or aboriginal culture in the immediate area? In fact, there is, that of the Anasazi whose name translates into “the ancient ones” or “the ancient enemies.” They were an extremely mysterious people spread all across the southwest and were responsible for the many strange stone structures that litter the landscape and baffle authorities. Sites like Mesa Verde, Four Corners, Mummy Cave, Chaco Canyon, Stanton’s Cave, and the Canyons of the Ancients National Monument, were all abandoned by the time Europeans arrived, leaving behind only puzzling ruins of master masonry often aligned with solar and lunar events and adorned with odd towers and subterranean sacred spaces known as kivas. Modern scholars believe that these people were just another Native American tribe who simply assimilated into the so called Modern Puebloans, and this is the explanation for their disappearance; however, Navajo, Paiute, and Hopi oral traditions universally agree that the region was inhabited by a genetic/culturally distinct, vicious, and cannibalistic people prior to their arrival, and that these ancient enemies were eventually driven away or into extinction, although some degree of assimilation most likely did occur.

            While all of the aforementioned sites are worth researching in relation to this mystery, perhaps the two most intriguing are Stanton’s Cave and Mummy Cave. Stanton’s Cave is located about a half miles hike from the South Canyon camping beach, near but not within the forbidden zone. This “cave” was originally believed by the authorities to be man made and is currently sealed with metal bars to prevent entry. According to the sign, this is for the people’s safety and to protect an endangered bat habitat. The ceiling of the cavity is clearly vaulted and this is does not resemble a natural feature, and it is also factual that this cavity was inhabited in the distant past and many precious artifacts were removed during an official excavation in 1969-70(6).

Mummy Cave, located at Canyon de Chelly National Monument (and not to be confused with Mummy Cave site in Wyoming), is a few hours northeast drive from the Grand Canyon. This bizarre, mesmerising ancient ruin is massive and very strange, “Among the discoveries no bones of animals have been found, no skins, no clothing, no bedding. Many of the rooms are bare but for water vessels. One room, about 40 by 700 feet, was probably the main dinning hall, for cooking utensils are found here. What these people lived on is a problem, though it is presumed that they came south in the winter and farmed in the valleys, going back north in the summer. Upwards of 50,000 people could have lived in the caverns comfortably. One theory is that the present Indian tribes found in Arizona are descendants of the serfs or slaves of the people which inhabited the cave. Undoubtedly, a good many thousands of years before the Christian era, a people lived here which reached a high stage of civilization”(7).

This theory meshes well with the Native American traditions that characterize the Anasazi as “ancient enemies”, and there is indisputable evidence that these people inhabited the region long before the present tribes and that there were sinister events afoot at these sites. For example, while no animal bones or skins were found, what were found were human remains. Human remains by themselves is not surprising, but the manner in which they were discovered is quite ominous. A stones throw from Mummy Cave rests Big Cave in a subsection of Canyon de Chelly known as Canyon del Muerto (the canyon of the dead). “The remains of 14 infants were found in a slab-lined cist used earlier as a storage bin. Below the infants were the bodies of four other children packed in an enormous basket”(7).

Legacies and Liars

            Professor David Starr Jordan was indeed closely affiliated with the Smithsonian institution for thirty years spanning the 1880s until 1910, which included ichthyological expeditions upon the Colorado River and into the Grand Canyon(8). According to early census records, Starr was not his given middle name and did not appear legally until later in life when he selected it. Jordan served as President of Stanford University, and was a fervent believer in eugenics. Jordan’s primitive pseudoscience and xenophobic paranoia lead him to write the 1899 essay “A Study of the Decay of Races Through the Survival of the Unfit” in which he illustrated his irrationality regarding “race degeneration” and implored the effectuation of tremendous efforts designed to maintain “racial unity”(9). Later on, it was Jordan who lead a nationwide sterilization program which equated to a crime against humanity. In 2003, many buildings in California were shamefully stripped of his name and the California Legislature unanimously “expressed its profound regret over the state’s past role in the eugenics movement”(10). In light of all this, it’s not surprising that the Smithsonian would’ve commissioned him in the past to distort the historical narrative, or seeks to distance themselves from him now.

Through the Looking Glass  

            Based on the factual evidence, it can be objectively determined that the Smithsonian has been less than forthcoming about its affiliation with Jordan, sections of the park are suspiciously off limits, and this forbidden zone does contain Egyptian and Hindu monikers as well as ancient man made chambers. It seems that early twentieth century imperialist propaganda related to westward expansion, and feeble concepts like manifest destiny, prevailed in an effort to demote the history of indigenous peoples or perhaps to rationalize and maintain a Darwinist paradigm.

            There is of course, another key to unlocking this mystery, field research, and the legal restrictions within the forbidden zone and cavities do make exceptions in the case of survival and distress. So with that and the spirit of exploration in mind, Kipling’s poem The Explorer provides apt inspiration. “A voice, as bad as Conscience, rang interminable changes. On one everlasting Whisper day and night repeated so: ‘Something hidden. Go and find it. Go and look behind the ranges. Something Lost behind the Ranges. Lost and waiting for you. Go!’”



7.  Bradley, Zorro. The Project Gutenberg Ebook of Canyon de Chelly. Washington: Office of Publications, 2016. Ebook.

3.  Hunter, Cathy. “John Wesley Powell: Soldier, explorer, scientist, and National Geographic founder.” National Geographic 5 December 2014.

10. Johnsson, Lars. “Guest Opinion: The inconvenient truth about David Starr Jordan.” 19 February 2016. Palo Alto. Document. 29 October 2020.

9.  Jordan, David Starr. The National Encyclopaedia of American Biography 1932: 68-79. Document.

11.  Kipling, Rudyard. “The Explorer.”, n.d.

1. Lago, Don. “” 2009. webpage. 26 October 2020.

5.  National Park Service. “The National Parks Overflight Act of 1987.” Report. 1987. 27 October 2020.

4.  “” September 1989. 27 October 2020.

2.  Rhodes, Jesse. “Urban Legends About the Smithsonian.” Smithsonian Magazine 31 August 2009. online magazine article.

8.  “Smithsonian’s Enigmatic Prof. Jordan, Linked to 1909 Arizona Newspaper Article, Identified.” 12 September 2014. Document. 30 10 2020.

6.  “Protecting Our Bats in Our National Parks.” Volume 13 Issue 3. Article. 29 October 2020.


By Mark A. Carpenter


The Dyatlov Pass incident is one of the most enduring mysteries of the twentieth century. In 1959, nine young explorers perished in Siberia’ s Northern Ural Mountains. Ink has been spilt, books published, films shot, conspiracy theories hatched, and recent headlines claim to have finally solved the enigma. But have they? The questions arise from the vexing circumstances of the scene: the bodies were a far distance from their camp, they were mostly undressed and some had bizarre, traumatic injuries. Clues might be found in the recent anthropological discoveries made in this most desolate and frigid wasteland.

The Scene  

The explorers camp was at the foot of their intended destination- Mount Kholat Syakhl, translated as “dead mountain,” or “mountain of the dead.” This place is a true wilderness, beyond the reach of modern, industrial civilization. The one exception to this is the rugged yet humble Mansi tribe, who endure unimaginable temperatures and sub-arctic conditions, sustaining themselves by reindeer herding and hunting. Above the tree line, at the base of this ominous mountain, the Dyatlov camp was discovered in disarray. The tent was lightly powdered with fresh snow, contained all of their possessions, and strangest of all, had been torn open from the inside. Nine sets of bare footprints led the investigators to three different locations were remains were found. About 1.6 kilometers (1 mile) from the camp, at the edge of the tree line, the first two bodies were uncovered. They were wearing only underwear, had no shoes on, and had apparently attempted to build a fire. There was also evidence that one of them had climbed a tree, most likely, in an attempt to get a better vantage point from which they could relocate the campsite. These two victims had no internal or external trauma and died of hypothermia.

The Scene Continued   

Another set of prints led the team to three more bodies, and the position of the remains indicated these three had made a heroic attempt to return to the tent, but had succumbed to the bitter cold before reaching it. They too had no external or internal trauma, and died of exposure. Over two months passed before announcement came regarding the discovery of the remaining four adventurers. But they were found, buried deep in the snow, about 75 meters (82 yards) from the tree line in a ravine. Three of these four were slightly more clothed and all had extreme, and yet very odd, trauma. One had severely a fractured skull for example, another two had fractures in their chest cavities and rib cages. It should be noted that according to the forensic investigator, this was caused by a force beyond the physical capabilities of a human being, on par with that of a car accident impact. Strangest of all, each of these four victims had peri or postmortem injuries to the soft tissue of their face and or heads. One was missing both eyeballs, another their lips and tongue, one had a section of skull fragment removed.

A Conundrum of Conclusions & Conspiracy Theories

  The official conclusion of the authorities at the time was that “the members of the group had died due to a compelling natural force.” This conclusion is obviously and deliberately vague, as any conceivable human death could be attributed to “a compelling natural force.” Needless to say, this explanation left much to be desired, and many researchers have sought to solve the mystery. The most commonly accepted version of events attributes the deaths to either an avalanche, or paradoxical undressing (an irrational distress behavior in which hypothermic individuals experiencing frost bite paradoxically undress in an attempt to relieve burning sensations), or a combination of both. There are three frequently suggested, alternative theories: One, that the travelers witnessed secret Russian military testing of some kind, were exposed to something toxic, and were either deliberately killed to silence them, or the tests themselves caused their deaths. Two, that they had an encounter with otherworldly lifeforms and this disturbed them so much, that they fled, resulting in their death by exposure. Three, that they were attacked by the “snow-man,” a controversial, hairy, human-like creature, equivalent to the Asian Yeti and or the Native American Sasquatch.

Contradictions and Cover-Ups

Given the hostile conditions of the region, amplified by their location where deadly weather shifts occur frequently, it is easy to accept that perhaps, they were startled that night by an imminent rush of loose snow. Then they cut holes in the tent so that they could dash immediately to escape it, then when their fears were realized, and they did evacuate, they did so in such a panic, that they were undressed and then perished. This theory goes on to suggest the trauma was the result of being buried under the wave of snow, and the rest was the trace of scavenger wildlife predation. Russian authorities did in fact, reopen the entire investigation in February of 2019, and the only possible conclusions they were willing to entertain were an avalanche, slab avalanche, or hurricane. The previously referenced, recent headlines are the result of this re-investigation which insists a slab avalanche (a micro avalanche in which a slab or snow breaks off from a deeper layer, sliding down the hill in a large frozen chunk) is the explanation. Majority of the public, including families of the victims, reject this hypothesis based on the numerous, glaring contradictions. The tent was only slightly buried, undoubtedly from the snowfall from the time elapsed from abandonment to discovery; furthermore, footprints would never have survived in tact to be followed if the very path they fled had been covered by an avalanche.

Conclusions & Contradictions Continued  

The some very determined researchers have devoted themselves in an intrepid quest to study the original report documents, and what they found was disturbing. To begin with, the original report, in May of 59, was immediately locked away in the bowels of a restricted government archive. It was only decades later, a descendant of one of the original investigators (the daughter of Lev Ivanov) came forward, that these reports were donated to the Dyatlov Foundation. These documents included journals of the explorers, photographic negatives, and all the evidence accumulated. The most stark element was documentation that revealed the authorities discovered the scene weeks before officially announcing it. Why, with such a national tragedy, and families grieving, would the government sit on the discovery of the site? Why, if nothing other than explorers perishing in the wilderness occurred, would they whisk away film negatives, reports, and journals to a secret archive? Why, would they be so adamant about a theory that is so clearly contradictory to their own reports?

The Mensi Were Originally Suspected

Like many indigenous people worldwide, the Mensi have been thoroughly disenfranchised by the Russian industrial civilization machine and this has lead to tension between the Mensi and Russian authorities. And when the Dyatlov expedition was first discovered dead, with these odd traces of trauma, the Mensi were immediately suspected and interrogated. It was found that the expedition team had encountered the Mensi at one of their final checkpoints, and not only that, but an argument had erupted. But after intensive scrutiny (which would have been intense in 1959 Russia) the Mensi were cleared of any wrongdoing. But what was this argument about if not irritation due to the expedition impeding on their territory? According to more recent investigations into the matter, and from the lips of the Mansi themselves, they insisted the young adventurers not travel to this place because it is, to this very day, the home of the Menk.

The Menk & Mensi Lore

The Mensi are such an introverted culture, living on the very edge of civilization, even ethnologists know little about their traditions. But there are fragments of Siberian Oral Tradition recorded in the Khanty (a related, slightly more well known culture) Epics. These accounts recall that early, Russian Orthodox Christian Princes rid the land of the Menk, who are an ancient race of human-like, supernatural, forest dwellers, hostile towards regular humans. They are said to have beyond human capabilities and live in a realm parallel to the forest environment. Mensi hunters tell of hearing inhuman whistles while out herding their reindeer. They interpret these whistles as warnings by the Menk when the herders come too close to Menk territory. Mensi shamans tell of Menk capable of out running horses and ripping open bears with only their hands. It is also said that the Menk drinks the blood and eats only soft flesh of their prey, lungs, eyes, tongues, heart, etc. Folklore is easy for Western minds to dismiss as just that, lore; however, recent anthropological expeditions to this region have made some very interesting finds that may connect to the Mensi folklore regarding the Menk.

Recent Anthropological Revelations

A stones throw from the infamous Dyatlov scene, is the controversial, early man archaeological find known as the Byzovaya Site. This site has been studied (curiously, and perhaps not coincidentally) since the early sixties, and since its original discovery, several different European and Russian teams have been debating the ramifications of it. Over these decades, three-hundred-and-thirteen, extremely ancient, stone artifacts have been recovered, along with over four-thousand animal bones belonging to extinct, Ice Age species. The debate is fueled by the fact that these artifacts, due to their construction and time period, are almost certainly Neanderthal. But this is highly problematic because it flies in the face of academic dogma: that Neanderthals never lived that far north, and that they had gone extinct some seven-thousand years prior. But the majority of the scientists involved in the study stand firm that these are absolutely Neanderthal tools. Their opponents fire back that no Neanderthal remains have been found; therefore, they cannot definitively prove that these are Neanderthal artifacts.

Neanderthal Or Not?

In 2011, professor emeritus in the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Bergen and the Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Dr. Jan Mangerud, defended their case stating “We consider it overwhelmingly probable that the Mousterian technology (named after the site of Le Moustier in southern France, where they were first identified) we describe was performed by Neanderthals, and thus that they indeed survived longer, that is until 33,000 years ago, than most other scientists believe.” According to project leader Ludvic Slimak, modern human tool-crafting methods associated with the Upper Paleolithic (between 40,000 and 10,000 years ago), on the other hand, “were generally focused on the production of what we call blade or bladelet technologies,” Slimak said. The Byzovaya humans apparently did not make such “blades,” which were often crafted from organic materials such as bone and ivory. So Slimak’s team has a very well fortified argument that Neanderthals likely made the Byzovaya tools.

Neanderthal No Nos

These kinds of conceptual upheavals are not uncommon when it comes to the subject of hominin species, especially the Neanderthals. Initially, Neanderthals were believed by leading authorities to be a only a notch above apes. They were said to be knuckle walkers, who couldn’t manipulate fire or communicate, far inferior to glorious and mighty Homo sapien. Nothing could be further from the truth and science has proven it with blinding certainty. Neanderthals did indeed manipulate fire, their tool-construction methods were very sophisticated, they had music, art, culture, and of course, they could verbally communicate. Not only were they wrong about all this, but as it turns out, Neanderthals lived much closer to Homo sapiens in both time and space, interbreeding with us, and the chronology for Neanderthal existence is being continually pushed closer to the present.

The Tricky Business Of Extinction

  The gold standard of scientific reasoning is that a hypothesis must be testable by experimentation and observation, this makes hard science regarding the extinction of a species virtually impossible. Reasonable presumption of a species’ extinction is understandable, but these presumptions have a way of becoming perceived facts. Several other species have been presumed extinct, only to appear alive and well. In some cases, the presumed extinction was taught to have occurred hundreds of millions of years ago. Goblin Sharks, Tree Lobsters, Arakan Forest Turtles, Coelacanths, Night Parrots, Chacoan Peccary, New Guinea Big-Eared Bats, New Guinea Singing Dogs, all these species were adamantly believed to be extinct by scientific authorities. Other species, like the Giant Squid, were for ages, believed to not exist at all, except in the minds of voyagers and storytellers. Overall, our species has a habit of overestimating our awareness of the environment, and are quick to jump to biased conclusions regarding the potential extinction of, a species.

Russian Scientist Dr. Igor Burtsev

Believe it or not, the Russian University of Kemerovo has recently opened their own Yeti Institute, directed by Dr. Igor Burtsev. Burtsev has stated publicly that in his expert opinion, (which is perfectly credible-academic black sheep though he may be) the so called Yeti (an by extension, the Menk) is very real, and is a relic population of Neanderthal hominins. It is easy to cast stones at Dr. Burtsev who may very well be another in a long line of scientists who are tarred and feathered for proposing theories that upset the academic applecart and the peddlers whose reputations are so heavily invested in it.


Objectively, the weird compression injuries could be explained away by the heavy weight of compacted snow piled onto the four victims found in the ravine; however, anthropologists are also well aware that Neanderthal skeletons are quite robust, indicating a very muscular and powerful frame. This physical strength of theirs is also evident the species of bones that were discovered in the nearby site. In other words, hunting Woolly Rhinos with spears and atlatls required great physical strength, much greater than that of Homo sapiens. Also, it is virtually impossible that scavengers would have picked away at these specific targets of soft flesh, leaving no gnaw marks, and abandoning the remainder of the flesh. It is again impossible that the supposed micro avalanche would not completely cover the tent and or tracks. What was it Sir Arthur Conan Doyle so famously wrote? “When you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth.”


Alex, Bridget. “In Russia’s Far North, a Lone Group of Neanderthals May Have Been the last of Their Kind.” January 14th, 2020. Discover Magazine. Science That Matters.

Devitt, Polina (11 July 2020). “Russia blames avalanche for 1959 Urals mountain tragedy, RIA agency reports”. Reuters. Archived from the original on 13 January 2021. Retrieved 12 September 2020.

Hatto, Arthur. (2 February 2017). “The World of the Khanty Epic Hero-Princes: An Exploration of a Siberian Oral Tradition.” Cambridge University Press. pp. 243.

Specktor, Brandon. “Russia’s ‘Dyatlov Pass’ conspiracy theory may finally be solved after sixty years. January 28th, 2021. Live Science.  

Viegas, Jennifer. “Could this be the Site of Neanderthals Last Stand?” May 13th, 2011. NBC News.




By Mark A. Carpenter


Patagonia is one of the most exotic, primeval, and unexplored wildernesses on the planet. Patagonia literally means “Land of the Big Feet,” and it can be found at the southernmost edge of the Andes Mountains, stretching into Northern Argentina, and all the way down deep into Chile. The landscape is primordial wonderland that instantly transforms from temperate rainforests, into shimmering glacier fields, and again, into desolate wastelands of volcanic cinders. Since the age of discovery Patagonia has been a fascination, but now, technological advances, archaeological discoveries, and independent research is culminating into startling revelations that challenge conventional science and history.


Mysterious Megaliths Emerge

Only days ago, Chilean photographer and explorer Fernando Gudenschwager Martini made contact with researchers and shared photographs of megalithic stones on the shores of Lake Villarrica. Some of the stones vaguely resemble the menhirs (standing stones) of Europe, as they are standing alone, are upright, and relatively rectangular. There are similar stones nearby that are not standing up, but rather, is resting on its side partially submerged at the edge of the lake. The find is so new and fresh, it is difficult at this point, to determine the precise dimensions; however, we can again liken the approximate quantities to those of the European standing stones, or some of the very familiar Andean Culture megaliths to the north. There is no doubt they are manmade, but the familiar, mysterious pattern of what is in doubt emerges: who built them, how, when, and for what purpose?


The So-Called Incan Road

The upright stones on the dry shore have an interesting feature, they contain small bore holes in peculiar patterns grouped together on the sides. Fernando passes along the suggestion that these hole represent star constellations, which is a valid theory since Incan and Pre-Incan Cultures to the North did indeed bore out stone depressions in order to imitate or reflect the night sky pattern of star constellations. Reflect here is used literally, as Incans and Pre-Incans created what archaeologists call “water mirrors,” which are depressions in stone that become filled with water and are aligned to “capture” the reflection of astronomical bodies. Historians and explorers (and of course the locals) have long known of the so-called Incan Road—which has been a major artery of travel, trade, and cultural transmission for centuries, even millennia. But, it is important to remember that the Inca, by their own history and the accounts of the Conquistadors, were an occupying force themselves at the time of the European invasions. In other words, the Inca got a lot of credit for megalithic constructions that in reality, were the achievements of the vanquished cultures that came before them, which applies to this road and the stones along it as well.

Enigmatic Encounters of Early Explorers (Magellan)

Between 1519 CE and 1522 CE, Portuguese born, Spanish crown commissioned captain Ferdinand Magellan circumnavigated the globe. According to the official chronicles painstakingly recorded by Antonio Pigafetta, as they approached the shore of this strange Patagonian land, they witnessed a giant, naked man dancing and anointing himself with powder. A crew member was sent ashore to make contact and did so by imitating the giants gestures. Pigafetta’s account is as follows “When the giant was in the captain-general’s and our presence he marveled greatly, and made signs with one finger raised upward, believing we had come from the sky. He was so tall that we reached only to his waist, and he was well proportioned.” The explorers made contact with the giant’s tribe offering them gifts of food and drink, and there was note made they were utterly terrified when they saw a mirror. After a couple weeks, the explorers attempted to abduct two of them to bring home as evidence of their enigmatic encounter; however, the two they captured perished and were disposed of during the long odyssey back to Spain. Modern historians minimize this account by accusing Pigafetta of exaggeration, but aside from this tiny fraction, the entirety of the circumnavigation chronicle is hailed as exquisitely accurate.

Enigmatic Encounters Continued (Drake)

Then in 1579, English explorer Sir Francis Drake completed the second circumnavigation of recorded history. His expedition’s chronicler and ship chaplain Francis Fletcher recorded their similar observations of the Patagonians. The first detailed account of Drake’s circumnavigation was published in 1628: The World Encompassed, written by Drake’s own nephew who bore the same name. In it, he writes “Magellan was not all together deceived, in naming them giants; for they generally differ from the common sort of men, both in stature, and strength of body; as also in the hideousness of their voice: but yet they are not so monstrous, or giant like as they were reported; there being some English men, as tall, as the highest of any that we could see, but peradventure, the Spaniards did not think, that ever any English man would come thither, to reprove them; and thereupon might presume the more boldly to lie: the name Patagones, five cubits (seven foot and a half)[2.3 meters], describing the full height (if not somewhat more) of the highest of them.”

The Chemamull and the Mapuche

There is indigenous cultural tradition that reinforces these claims made by early explorers. The Mapuche traditions are revelatory because they directly link this specific region of Patagonia to an ancient conflict involving spirit/deities, demons, the underworld and giants. But the most glaring tradition that jumps out, is the existence of the chemamull. A chemamull is a seven-to-twelve-foot-tall wooden human figure that marks ancestral graves. These wooden giants have long ears and facial/cranial structures, their hands are folded in front of them, proportions are oddly familiar, and their heads are capped by what appear to be headdresses. The resemblance to Rapa Nui aka Easter Island Moai (giant megalithic statues) is uncanny. It is important to remember that Rapa Nui is technically a Chilean Territory, adventurer Thor Heyerdahl claimed cultural links between the island and Peru and, Rapa Nui sits on the extreme Eastern Edge of the Nazca Tectonic Plate whereas this specific region of Patagonia sits on the extreme Western Edge of the very same Nazca Tectonic Plate, hence the radical and relevant geomorphology.

Rapa Nui Rabbit Hole

Taking a not-so-quick detour over to Rapa Nui, immediately undeniable connections can be made. Not only are the chemamull virtually identical to the Moai, both seem to stand guard over the graves of their masters as well as entrances to the underworld itself. Beneath the surface of Rapa Nui is a Swiss Cheese labyrinth of volcanic tubes. This maze of subterranean twilight and microecosystems was home to cannibals, who were a distinct ethnic group from, and warred with the Polynesians, this is not a matter of opinion—indigenous, oral traditions and archaeology reinforce each other on this account.

Two Navels of the World

Te pito o te Kainga a Hau Maka, is the original name of the island, meaning “The Navel of the World.” Imagine for a moment the planet is a sentient feminine organism, as has been suggested by mainstream scientific hypotheses like the Gaia Theory. If the planet were a sentient, feminine organism, then a volcanic tube from the surface into the subterranean realm would indeed then be a geological membrane connecting “womb” to “navel.” These ancient builders were very much aware of these governing dynamics of existence that parallel themselves repeatedly throughout nature, and by erecting structures in harmony with these dynamics, they “sanctified” their “sacred” spaces, what scholars call a “cosmogram.” But these terms, “sanctified” and “sacred” ought not be confused with hollow, modern religious practices/concepts, this was something different, this was something … geophysical, perhaps what the ancient, now empty traditions are based off of. 

Enigmatic Early Explorer Encounter (Easter Isle)  

Let’s recall once again, that on Easter Sunday April 5th, 1722, Dutch navigator Jacob Roggeveen arrived ashore, marking the first recorded contact between Europeans and the islanders. According to the chronicles of Roggeveen he and his crew witnessed gigantic, fair-skinned inhabitants, with long, drooping ears, red hair, covered in tattoos and body paint, who were engaged in some form of worship or veneration of the enormous stone statues. “Thus far my narratives will gain credit, because it contains nothing uncommon, yet I must declare that these savages are of more than gigantic size, for the men being twice as tall and thick as the largest of our people; they measured, one with the other, the height of twelve feet (3.7 meters), so that we could easily—who will not wonder without stooping, have passed between the legs of these sons of GOLIATH. According to their height, so is their thickness, and are all, now with another, very well proportioned, so that each could have passed for a HERCULES; but none of their wives came up to the height of the men, being commonly not above ten or eleven feet (3 or 3.4 meters). The men had their bodies painted with a red or dark brown, and the women with a scarlet color. I doubt not but most people who read this voyage will give no credit to what I now relate, and that this account of the height of these giants will probably pass with them for a mere fable or fiction; but this I declare, that I have put down nothing but real truth, and that this people, upon the nicest inspection, were in fact of such a surpassing height as I have here described.” 

Additional Anomalous Accounts

Another collection of very strange accounts comes from 1864 CE documented by the missionary Eugene Eyraud who recorded that the inhabitants were not remotely dependent on the ocean (same as the earliest inhabitants of Patagonia), but rather, were expert farmers and he also made note that the ruling class of this rigid caste system was genetically distinct. “These savages are tall, strong and well built. Their features resemble far more European type than those of the other islanders of Oceania.” Additional details about the traits of the “long-ears” do exist: “Their ears were so long that they hung down as far as to the shoulders. What the form of worship of these people comprises we were not able to gather any full knowledge of, owing to the shortness of our stay among them; we noticed only that they kindle fire in front of certain remarkably tall stone figures they had set up; and, thereafter squatting on their heels with heads bowed down, they bring the palms of their hands together and alternately raise and lower them.”

Anomalous Academic Archaeology  

Mainstream historians give these accounts no credit; however, even the mainstream archaeology of Patagonia is swirling controversy and raising human origin eyebrows. First and foremost is the Atacama Giant, this fella is an enormous geoglyph anthropomorphically carved into the hillside representing a giant warrior wearing a headdress. He is one of five-thousand geoglyphs of the region, so many ancient mysteries … so little time. Most controversial and relevant to the giant/megalith/underworld mystery, are recent discoveries at Pilauco Bajo, Monte Verde, and Pali-Aike, these are all archaeological sites of extreme importance as they are some of, if not the oldest in the Americas. These sites contain human activity traces and artifacts that go back to between eleven-thousand to sixteen-thousand years old. They have discovered limited human remains, like a skull cap, and some cremated skeletons, but they have also discovered “fishtail” lithic tools/weapons and apparently, these Paleolithic men were hunting extinct megafauna like giant ground sloths, pumas, short-faced bears, and an extinct species of elephant. Please keep in mind that hunting Pleistocene (Ice Age) megafauna with handmade weapons would be physically challenging to say the least.

Profound Patagon Proximity Patterns  

Speaking of challenges, keeping culture, geology, geography, myth, science, all in perspective is difficult and often results in precious insights falling by the wayside. When the location of the megaliths is plotted on a map, within a fifty-mile-radius, close to a dozen archaeological sites that are upending conventional theories of the peopling of the Americas are present. Then, within that same snug radius, grumbles an active volcano that the Mapuche call Rucapillán which means “house of the great spirit.” The Mapuche believe that Antu, a deity or non-human/spirit being, rules over the region from Refugio Villaricca. Without delving too deeply into their rich tradition, suffice it to say they recall an epic conflict between Antu and his legion of “pillan” (benevolent/angelic beings allied with Antu), and their clash with the wekfue (malevolent, non-humans who rivaled the pillan). Ultimately, Antu and the pillan are victorious, but the battle was so violent it disturbed the landscape and some wekfue escaped as the pillan imprisoned them beneath great quantities of stone and water. The Mapuche also maintain, that both the pillan and the wekfue interbred with mortal women and produced gigantic, hominid hybrid offspring, and they were likewise, caught up in the conflict and imprisoned in the underworld.

Nephilim Reflections

The mythological parallels to the biblical narrative are unavoidable. The Mapuche myth even states that the catalyst for the conflict was this interbreeding between human and immortals, just as the biblical account of the “Watchers” (rebellious angels) who violated their codes and impregnated mortal women with gigantic/lawless offspring—the Nephilim. More subtle details are reflected in Enoch seven and fourteen, in which their thirst for blood, knowledge of agriculture, and gigantic stature are all mentioned in conjunction with this sense of them lurking on the fringes of the netherworld.


Early explorers claimed to witness giant hominids, archaeologists are reconsidering history, and megalithic sites are emerging, one thing is for certain, The Land of the Big Feet, Patagonia, cries out to us to investigate her mysteries and shed light on our origins.


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